Jorun Rugkåsa

Adjunct professor

Faculty of Health and Social Sciences
Department of Nursing and Health Sciences
Campus Porsgrunn ()
Jorun Rugkåsa is a Professor at the Centre for Care Research, University of South-Eastern Norway, and a Senior Researcher at the Health Services Research Unit, Akershus University Hospital. She is a sociologist with 20 years’ experience of health services research in Ireland, Northern Ireland, England and Norway. Her research focuses on • coercion in psychiatric services, • family caregiving in mental health • care pathways for older people and their family caregivers. She has published more than 60 peer reviewed articles and several books on these topics. Her post-graduate teaching has focused on qualitative and ethnographic methods; culture, ethnicity and socio-economic position and mental illness, and; culture and inclusive service response. She currently supervises 5 PhD candidates.



My current research projects include:

2019- 2023 – Principal Investigator on “Does the structural organisation of care affect pathways in municipal services for older people with mental health/substance abuse disorders? Awarded from the Norwegian Research Council

2018- 2022 – Principal Investigator on “How can we reduce the use of compulsion of people with severe mental illness? A cross-sectoral, multi-methods study”. Awarded from the Norwegian Research Council

2017- 2020 – Principal Investigator on “How do we provide better, safer and more cost-effective care pathways for older people? Awarded from the Norwegian Research Council.




Rugkåsa, J., Nyttingnes, O., Simonsen, T. B., Benth, J. Š., Lau, B., Riley, H., Løvsletten, M., Christensen, T.B., Austegard, A. T., Høyer, G. (2019). The use of outpatient commitment in Norway: Who are the patients and what does it involve? International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 62, 7-15. doi:10.1016/j.ijlp.2018.11.001

Ådnanes, M., Kalseth, J., Ose, S. O., Ruud, T., Rugkåsa, J., & Puntis, S. (2018). Quality of life and service satisfaction in outpatients with severe or non-severe mental illness diagnoses. Quality of Life Research. doi:10.1007/s11136-018-2039-5

Stuen, H.K., Landheim, A., Rugkåsa. J., Wynn, R. (2018). How clinicians make decisions about CTOs in ACT: a qualitative study. International Journal of Mental Health Systems 12(1):51. doi: 10.1186/s13033-018-0230-2

Nyttingnes, O., Ruud. T,. Norvoll, R., Rugkåsa, J., Hanssen-Bauer, K. (2018). A cross-sectional study of experienced coercion in adolescent mental health inpatients. BMC Health Services Research, 18(1):389. doi:

Stuen, H.K.., Landheim, A., Rugkåsa, J., Wynn, R. (2018). Responsibilities with conflicting priorities: a qualitative study of ACT providers' experiences with community treatment orders. BMC Health Services Research, 18(1), 290. doi: 10.1186/s12913-018-3097-7

Vergunst, F., Jenkinson, C., Burns , T., Anand, P., Gray, A., , Rugkåsa, J., and Simon, J. (2017). Psychometric validation of a multidimensional capability instrument for outcome measurement in mental health research (OxCAP-MH). Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 15:250. doi: 10.1186/s12955-017-0825-3

Rugkåsa, J., Canvin, C. (2017). Carer involvement in compulsory out-patient psychiatric care in England. BMC Health Services Research.  17;762, doi: 10.1186/s12913-017-2716-z

Vergunst, F., Rugkåsa, J., Koshiaris, C., Burns, T. (2017). Community treatment orders and social outcomes for patients with psychosis: a 48-month follow-up study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 52:1375–1384. doi: 10.1007/s00127-017-1442-5.

Singh, SP., Paul, M., Parsons, H., Burns, T., Tyrer, P., Fazel, S., Deb. S.,  Islam, Z., Rugkåsa, J., Gajwani, R., Thana, L., Crawford. M. (2017).  A prospective, quantitative study of Mental Health Act assessments in England following the 2007 amendments to the 1983 Act: did the changes fulfill their promise? BMC Psychiatry. 17:246. Doi:10.1186/s12888-017-1391-2

Rugkåsa, J.  (2017). Why we need to understand service variation in compulsion. Invited editorial. The Lancet Psychiatry, S2215-0366(17)30237-7

Rugkåsa, J., Burns, T. (2017). Community Treatment Orders: Are they useful? BJPsych Advances, 23, 406-408. Doi: 10.1192/apt.bp.115.015743.

Rugkåsa, J. Canvin, K. (2017). Mental Health, Coercion and Family Caregiving: Issues from the International Literature. BJPsych International, 4(3), 56-58.

Puntis, S., Rugkåsa. J., Burns, T. (2017). Associations between compulsory community treatment and continuity of care in a three year follow-up of the Oxford Community Treatment Order Trial (OCTET) cohort. BMC Psychiatry, 17:151 Doi: 10.1186/s12888-017-1319-x

Ådnanes, M., Rugkåsa, J., Ose, S. O., Kalseth, J., Puntis, S. (2017) To what extent is patient rated quality of life associated with continuity of care, therapeutic relationships and unmet need for services? A study of outpatient mental health service users in Norway. International Journal of Integrated Care, 17(5): A187, pp. 18, DOI:

Stuen, H. K., Landheim, A., Rugkåsa, J., Wynn, R. (2017). Assessments of need for treatment and danger in decisions about community treatment orders. European Psychiatry, 41,S154–S155.

Perry, B. I., Champaneri, N., Griffiths, F., Paul, M.,  Islam, Z., Rugkåsa, J., Burns, T., Tyrer, P., Crawford, M., Deb, S., Singh, S. P. (2017). Exploring professionals’ understanding, interpretation and implementation of the ‘appropriate medical treatment test’ in the 2007 amendment of the Mental Health Act 1983. British Journal of Psychiatry Open, 3, 57–63. doi: 10.1192/bjpo.bp.116.003939.

Morandi, S., Golay, P., Vasquez-Montes, M., Rugkåsa, J., Molodynski, A., Yeeles, K., Burns. T. (2017). Factorial structure and long-term stability of the Autonomy Preference Index.  Psychological Assessment, 29(1):110-115. doi: 10.1037/pas0000327.

Burns T, Rugkåsa J, Yeeles K, Catty J. (2016). Coercion in mental health: a trial of the effectiveness of community treatment orders and an investigation of informal coercion in community mental health care. Programme Grants for Applied Reseach;4(21), 1-354. DOI: 10.3310/pgfar04210

Nyttingnes, O., Rugkåsa, J., Holmén, A., & Ruud, T. (2016). The Development, Validation, and Feasibility of the Experienced Coercion Scale. Psychological Assessment. Advance online publication.

Rugkåsa. J., Yeeles, K., Koshiaris, C., Burns, T. (2016). Recall of patients on community treatment orders. A three-year follow-up of the OCTET CTO cohort. BMC Psychiatry. 16, 392. doi: 10.1186/s12888-016-1102-4

Rugkåsa, J., Yeeles, K., Koshiaris, C., Burns, T. (2016). What does being on a community treatment orders entail? A  3-year follow-up of the OCTET CTO cohort. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 52, 465 – 472. doi:10.1007/s00127-016-1304-6.

Puntis, S.P., Rugkåsa. J., Burns. T. (2016). The association between continuity of care and readmission to hospital in patients with severe psychosis. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 51(12): 1633–1643. doi: 10.1007/s00127-016-1287-3.

Nyttingnes, O., Ruud, T., & Rugkåsa, J., (2016) ‘It's unbelievably humiliating’—Patients' expressions of negative effects of coercion in mental health care, International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 49:147-153

Burns, T., Rugkåsa, J. (2016). Hospitalisation and compulsion: the research agenda. Invited editorial. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 209, 97–98. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.116.181297.

Dunn, M., Canvin, C., Rugkåsa. J., Sinclair, J., Burns., T. (2016). An empirical ethical analysis of community treatment orders within mental health services in England. Clinical Ethics. 11(4): 130-139. Doi: 0.1177/1477750916657654

Rugkåsa, J. (2016). Effectiveness of community treatment orders: the international evidence. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 61(1) 15-24. doi: 10.1177/0706743715620415.

Aasbø, G., Rugkåsa. J., Solbrække, K., Werner, A. (2016). Negotiating the care-giving role: family members’ experience during critical exacerbation of COPD in Norway. Health and Social Care in the Community, 5(2):612-620.  doi: 10.1111/hsc.12350.

Olajide, K., Tyrer, P., Singh, S. P., Burns, T, Rugkåsa, J., Thana, L., Paul, M., Islam, Z., Crawford, M. J. (2016). Likelihood and predictors of detention in patients with personality disorder compared with other mental disorders: A retrospective, quantitative study of Mental Health Act assessments. Personality and Mental Health. 10(3):191-204. doi: 10.1002/pmh.133.

DeRidder R, Molodynski A, Manning C, McCusker P, Rugkåsa J. (2015). Community treatment orders in the UK 5 years on:a repeat national survey of psychiatrists. The Psychiatric Bulletin. 40(3): 119–123. doi: 10.1192/pb.bp.115.050773.

Stuen, H. K., Rugkåsa. J., Landheim, A., Wynn, R. (2015). Increased influence and collaboration: A qualitative study of patients’ experiences of community treatment orders within an assertive community treatment setting. BMC Health Services Research, 15: 409. doi: 10.1186/s12913-015-1083-x

Burns, T, Yeeles, K, Koshiaris, C, Vazquez-Montes, M Molodynski, A, Puntis, S, Vergunst, F, Forrest, A, Mitchell, A, Burns, K, Rugkåsa, J. (2015). Effect of increased compulsion on readmission to hospital or disengagement from community services for patients with psychosis: follow-up of a cohort from the OCTET trial. The Lancet Psychiatry, 2(10), 881-90

Valenti, E., Banks, C., Barba, A.,  Bensimon, C., Fritsch, R., Hoffmann, K., Pelto-Piri, V., Jurin, T., Marquez Mendoza, O., Mundt, A., Rugkåsa, J., Tubini, J., Priebe. S. (2015). Informal Coercion in Psychiatry – A Focus Group Study of Attitudes and Experiences of Mental Health Professionals in Ten Countries. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50(8),1297-308, doi: 10.1007/s00127-015-1032-3

Rugkåsa, J., Molodynski, A., Yeeles, K., Vazquez-Montes, M., Visser, C., Burns, T. (2015). Community Treatment Orders: clinical and social outcomes, and a sub-group analysis from the OCTET RCT. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.131(5):321-9. doi 10.1111/acps.12373

Puntis, S., Rugkåsa, J., Forrest, A., Mitchell, A., Burns, T. (2015). Associations between continuity of care and patient outcomes in mental health care: A systematic review. Psychiatric Services, 66(4):354-63 doi: 10.1176/

Canvin, K., Rugkåsa, J., Sinclair, J., Burns, T. (2014) Patient, Psychiatrist and Family Carer Experiences of Community Treatment Orders: Qualitative Study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49:1873–1882 doi:10.1007/s00127-014-0906-0

Rugkåsa, J., Canvin, K., Sinclair, J., Sulman, A., Burns, T. (2014).  Trust, deals and authority. Community mental health professionals’ experiences of influencing reluctant patients. Community Mental Health Journal, 50:886–895, doi: 10.1007/s10597-014-9720-0

Rugkåsa. J., Dawson, J., Burns, T. (2014). CTOs: What is the state of the evidence? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49:1861–1871, doi: 10.1007/s00127-014-0839-7

Dunn, M., Sinclair, J., Canvin, K., Rugkåsa, J., Burns, T. (2014). The use of leverage in community mental health: Ethical guidance for practitioners.  International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 60(8) 759-765 doi: 10.1177/0020764013519083

Maughan, D., Molodynski, A., Rugkåsa, J., Burns, T. (2014). A systematic review of the effect of community treatment orders on service use. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology., 49:651–663. doi: 10.1007/s00127-013-0781-0

Rugkåsa, J., Dawson, J. (2013). Community Treatment Orders: current evidence and its implications. British Journal of Psychiatry, 203: 406-408 doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.113.133900.

Simon, J., Anand, P., Gray, A., Rugkåsa., J., Yeeles, K., Burns, T. (2013). Operationalising the capabilities approach for outcome measurement in mental health research. Social Science & Medicine. 98, 187-196.

Burns, T., Rugkåsa, J., Molodynksi, A, Dawson, J., Yeeles, K., Vazquez-Montes, M., Voysey, M., Sinclair, J., Priebe, S. (2013). Community Treatment Orders for patients with psychosis: a randomised controlled trial (OCTET). The Lancet 381(9878):1627-33. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60107-5

Canvin, C., Rugkåsa, J., Sinclair, J., Burns, T. (2013). Leverage and other informal pressures in community psychiatry in England. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. 36, 100-106, doi.:10.1016/j.ijlp.2013.01.002

Molodynski, A.., Turnpenny, L., Rugkåsa, J., Burns, T., Moussaoui, D., the World Association of Social Psychiatry International Working Group on Coercion. (2013). Coercion and compulsion in mental healthcare—An international perspective. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 8, 2-6,

Rugkåsa, J. (2012). Compulsion in the Community: An overview of legal regimes and current evidence. Impuls, 64, p. 56- 63.

Dunn, M., Hope, T., Maughan, D., Canvin, K., Rugkåsa, J., Sinclair, J., Burns, T. (2012). Threats and Offers in Community Mental Health Care. An Ethics Analysis. Journal of Medical Ethics, 38(4), 204-209.doi:10.1136/medethics-2011-100158

Dawson, J., Burns, T., Rugkåsa, J. (2011). Lawfulness of a Randomised Trial of the New Community Treatment Order Regime for England and Wales. Medical Law Review, 19(1), 1-26 doi: 10.1093/medlaw/fwq030.

Manning, C., Molodynski, A., Rugkåsa, J., Dawson, J., Burns, T. (2011). Community treatment orders in England and Wales, clinicians’ views and use: a national survey. The Psychiatrists, 35, 1-6. doi: 10.1192/pb.bp.110.032631

Rugkåsa, J.,  Canvin, K. (2011). Practical Issues in Recruiting Research Participants from Minority Ethnic Communities. Qualitative Health Research, 21(1), 132-143 doi: 10.1177/1049732310379115.

Burns, T. Rugkåsa, J., Dawson, J., Doll, H., Molodynski, A., Priebe, S., Sinclair, J. (2010). Oxford Community Treatment Order Evaluation Trial (OCTET): A Single-Outcome Randomised Controlled Trial of Compulsory Outpatient Treatment in Psychosis. The Lancet,

Molodynski, A., Rugkåsa, J., Burns, T. (2010). Coercion and Compulsion in Community Mental Health Care. British Medical Bulletin, 95, 105-119. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldq015.

Rugkåsa, J., Burns, T. (2009). Community Treatment Orders. Psychiatry, 8(2), 493-495. doi: 10.1016/j.mppsy.2009.09.009.

Boydell, L., Hoggett, P., Cummins, A. M., Rugkåsa, J. (2008). Intersectoral Partnerships, The Knowledge Economy and Intangible Assets. Policy and Politics. 36(2), 209-224. doi: 10.1332/030557308783995035.

Rugkåsa, J., Shortt, N., Boydell, L. (2007). The Right Tool for the Task. Boundary Spanners in a Partnership Approach to Tackle Fuel Poverty in Rural Northern Ireland. Health and Social Care in the Community. 15(3), 221-230. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2524.2006.00673.x.

Boydell, L, Rugkåsa, J. (2007). Benefits of Working in Partnership: A Model. Critical Public Health, 17(3), 217-228. doi: 10.1080/09581590601010190.

Shortt, N., Rugkåsa, J. (2007). “The Walls were so Damp and Cold”. Fuel Poverty and Ill Health in Northern Ireland: Results From a Housing Intervention. Health and Place, 13(1), 99-110. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2005.10.004.

Wilde, J., Boydell, L., Rugkåsa, J. (2006). Integrating Sustainable Development and Public Health on the Island of Ireland. An All Island Dimension. Journal of the Royal Institute of Public Health, 120(7), 601-603.

Stewart-Knox, B. J., Sittlington, J., Rugkåsa, J., Harrison, S., Treacy, M., Abaunza, P. (2005) Smoking and Peer Groups: Results from a Longitudinal Qualitative Study of Young People in Northern Ireland. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44(3), 397- 414. doi: 10.1348/014466604X18073.

Rugkåsa, J., Stewart-Knox, B., Sittlington, J.,  Santos Abaunza, P., Treacy, M. P. (2003). Hard Boys, Attractive Girls: Expressions of Gender in Young People's Conversations on Smoking in Northern Ireland. Health Promotion International, 18(4), 307-314. doi: 10.1093/heapro/dag404.

Rugkåsa, J., Kennedy, O., Barton, M., Abaunza, M. P., Knox, B. (2001). Smoking and Symbolism: Children, Communication and Cigarettes. Health Education Research. Theory and Practice, 16(2), 131-142. doi: 10.1093/her/16.2.131.

Rugkåsa, J., Knox, B., Sittlington, J., Kennedy, O., Treacy, M. P., Abaunza, P. S. (2001). Anxious Adults vs. Cool Children. Children’s Views on Smoking and Addiction. Social Science and Medicine, 53(5), 103-112. doi: 10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00367-1.




Rugkåsa, J. (2015). Care and Culture. Care Relations from the Perspectives of Mental Health Caregivers in Ethnic Minority Families. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN: 978-1-4438-7806-7

Molodynski, A., Rugkåsa, J., Burns, T.  (eds) (2016). Coercion in Community Mental Health Care: International Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  ISBN: 978-0-19-878806-5



Book chapters


Buchanan, A., Kisely, S., Moseley, D., Rugkåsa, J., Swanson, J.W., Swartz, M.S. (2017). Community psychiatric treatment under legal mandates. The international experience. In A. Buchanan (ed.). Care of Mentally Disordered Offenders in the Community. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.243-264. ISBN: 9780198804567

Rugkåsa, J., Molodynski, A., Burns, T. (2016). Introduction. In; A. Molodynski, J. Rugkåsa, J., T. Burns, T. (eds). Coercion in Community Mental Health Care: International Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 1-9

Rugkåsa, J. (2016). Family carers and coercion in the community. In; A. Molodynski, J. Rugkåsa, J., T. Burns, T. (eds). Coercion in Community Mental Health Care: International Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 161 - 178

Molodynski, A, Rugkåsa, J., Burns, T. (2016). Conclusions. In; A. Molodynski, J. Rugkåsa, J., T. Burns, T. (eds). Coercion in Community Mental Health Care: International Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 341-346