Impact of alternative fuels on emissions to air

Increased use of alternative fuels may have positive as well as negative effects on the emissions of gas pollutants. Typically, CO2 and NOx emissions are reduced, whereas HCl and VOC emissions may increase. The latter can however be avoided or significantly reduced by proper kiln system modifications.


Some alternative fuels (hazardous wastes) may contain Mercury (Hg). As this element is very volatile it will basically escape from a kiln system via the stack, and increased emissions of mercury will be the result. However, the behaviour of mercury in the kiln system is quite complex, being a part of internal as well as external cycles, and understanding this behaviour is crucial if mercury abatement is on the agenda.

References

Eriksen, D.Ø., Tokheim, L.A., Eriksen, T.A., Meyer, J. and Qvenild, C.: "Assessment of mercury emission at Norcem's cement kiln by use of 203Hg tracer", Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 273, No. 3, 2007 (previously published as conference proceedings in 2005)

Eriksen, D.Ø., Tokheim, L.A., Eriksen, T.A., Meyer, J. and Qvenild, C.: "Assessment of mercury emission at Norcem's cement kiln by use of 203Hg tracer", 1st International Nuclear Chemistry Congress, Conference proceedings, Kusadasi, Tyrkia, 22-29 May 2005

Eriksen, D.Ø., Tokheim, L.A., Eriksen, T.A., Martini, V. and Qvenild, C.: "Assessment of sulphur emission at Norcem's cement kiln by use of 35S-tracer", CPIC conference "Tracers and tracing methods: Tracer 2", Nancy, 20-31 May 2001