Summary of thesis
This thesis provides additional insights into the field of simulator training. Although
numerous studies have identified how to improve simulator technologies and team
training practices, little analytic attention has been paid to how to enable more
independent training. In this PhD work, different methodologies and technologies
were tested to evaluate their effect on trainees independence during simulator
Regarding the methodologies studied, the results show that preparation before
attending the simulator training sessions has a positive impact on the trainees’
confident using the simulator. They feel less dependent on the instructor when they
prepared for the session. Further, preparation leads to a good performance of the
trainees in the pretest, which allows trainees to start the training session more
In the case of the technologies evaluated, the overall results show that automatic
feedback contributes to the improvement of trainees’ performance when using the
simulator and helps them feel more confident.
Three different automatic feedback methods were developed, two based on Operator
Performance Indicator values and one based on data analysis. All the methods were
developed using the dynamic simulator K-Spice, from Kongsberg Digital. The
effect of trainees’ preparation before attending the sessions was also evaluated. The
aim was to study whether preparation allows trainees to be more independent and if
they request the instructor’s help less often than those who do not prepare do.
The main objective of this PhD thesis was to contribute to a solution to the challenge
associated with the deficit of expert instructors in simulator training. Feedback is
what makes the instructor so valuable. Therefore, how to deliver useful automatic
feedback during simulator training was the main focus of this work.