Rune Bakke


Fakultet for teknologi, naturvitenskap og maritime fag
Institutt for prosess-, energi- og miljøteknologi
Campus Porsgrunn (E-215)






Ph.D. Center for biofilm engineering, Montana State University, USA, 1986

M.Sc. Environmental Engineering, Montana State University, USA, 1983

B.Sc. Civil Engineering, Montana State University, USA, 1980



Professor - Environmental Engineering (1994 -), University of South-Eastern Norway Teaching: Water treatment processes (MSc), Energy technology (MSc), Bioenergetics (PhD), Biofilm processes (PhD), Water treatment and environmental biotechnology (MSc), Environmental management (MSc).

Research Scientist, SINTEF Tel-Tek (1994 - ); Rogaland Research Institute (1988-96)

Professor, Visiting: Hubei University (2006 - ), Wuhan; Harbin Inst. Technology (2012-), Harbin, China.

Vice Dean, (2002-2003) Faculty of Technology

Institute Board (1996-2003) Institute of Environmental Engineering

Professor, Environmental Engineering (1993-94), University of Stavanger

Asc. Professor (1986-93), University of Stavanger

Research Assistant, NSF stipend (1981-1986), Montana State University

PhD Opponent at NTNU, NMBU, UiS (Norway), Quensland, Chalmers and Lund Universities

Board of directors, Bio Tek AS (Ltd.), Porsgrunn, (2002-2008); Waterment AS, Porsgrunn, (2002-); Hifo Tech AS, Porsgrunn, (1996-2002); EnQua AS, Bryne, (1993-97); Stavanger Botanical Garden (1987-1994).

Program coordinator, SIU projects: (2006-2015) ‘Sustainable Process Development’ at University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka; (2017- ) ‘Carbon and nutrients recovery in waste/wastewater management processes’ with four Chinese university partners (UTF - 2016/10042 – UTFORSK

Partnership Programme).

NORAD, development aid consultant (1989 - 1992) Kenya; Program committee for "Technology for sustainable development in Sub-Saharan Africa"

Reviewer for National Science Foundation (USA): Biological instrumentation program.

Reviewer, journals: Waste Management, Bioresource Technology, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Water, Biotech. & Bioeng., Wat. Sci. and Tech. and Wat. Research.

Advisory Board for the Bentham The open Waste Management Journal

IAWPRC (IWA) Task Group on modeling of biofilm systems 1986.

Chairman (1979-1985) Association of Norwegian Stud. Abroad (ANSA) in Montana

Patents, USA4912332, EP2457878A1, EP2457878B1, NO20093590 and NO20076606

Environmental engineering consulting: Public and private water and wastewater treatment projects. Design and implementation of waste and wastewater treatment plants for resource recovery (water, biogas etc.) for domestic, industrial and agricultural wastes. Water shed restoration. Biofilm, fouling.

ONGOING RESEARCH PROJECTS (Start year in () and funding sources, a, b, c… below):

- Grey water treatment process (started in 2003). Company Waterment established. Patent. a

- Biofilm control technology for pipelines (2005). Company CleanUTube established. Patent. a

- Agricultural biogas production technology (2006). Pilot plants established. a,b

- Digestate nitrification for fertilizer production (2006). Pilot plant established. b

- Biodegradation of amine wastes from CCS (2007). Lab scale processes and computer simulator. c

- Micro-aeration in anaerobic digestion, AD (2005). Lab scale processes and computer simulator. b

- Model based AD control (2008). Lab and pilot processes established. d

- Anaerobic wastewater treatment (2009). Lab scale tests, implementations planned. e

- Biogas production, treatment and application (2011). Systems optimization. f

- BioValueChain, international EnergiX biogas study (2014). Comparative sustainability study. g

- HyVAB, low carbon footprint bioreactor for industrial wastewater (2014). Process development. h

- Biogas2020, (2015) Interreg. Skagerak-Kattegatti. i

- Pyrogas, EnergiX biogas study (2017). j

- Bærekraftig Biogass, EnergiX biogas study. k

Supported by a-Inovasjon Norge; b-Statens Landbruksforvaltning; c, d, e, f, g-Research Council of Norway (c-Project nr.199905/S60; d-208019/t10; e-202487; f-208818; g-228821/E20; h-239134Oslofjordfondet; j-269322; k- 269444/E20); i-EU



1. Bakke R., M.G. Trulear, J.A. Robinson, and W.G. Characklis. 1984. Activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilms: steady state. Biotech. & Bioeng. 26:1418-1424.

2. Characklis W.G., R. Bakke, and M.G. Trulear. 1986. Fundamental considerations of fixed film systems. Chapter 54:945-961 in Comprehensive Biotechnology, M. Moo-Young (ed.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, England.

3. Bakke R. and P.Q. Olsson. 1986. Biofilm thickness measurements by light microscopy. J. Microb. Meth., 5:93-98.

4. Bakke R. 1986. Biofilm Detachment. Ph.D. Dissertation. Montana State University.

5. Lewandowski Z., R. Bakke, and W.G. Characklis. 1987. Nitrification and autotrophic denitrification in calcium alginate beads. Wat. Sci. Tech. vol. 19, pp 175-182.

6. Characklis W.G., R. Bakke, and M.H. Turakhia. 1988. Theoretical analysis of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. Proceedings from the International Conference for Water and Wastewater Microbiology, Newport Beach, CA. Wat. Sci. Tech. vol. 20, no 11, pp 45-51.

7. Bakke R. 1990. Boreslam/Borekaks fra petroleumsvirksomhet -Vannforurensing (Drilling mud/Cuttings from Offshore drilling - Water pollution). Vann, 1;111-116.

8. Bakke R., K. Salte, H. Tengberg-Hansen and P. Ingsøy. 1990. Xanthan degradation by biofilm in porous media. Biofouling 2:311-321.

9. Bakke R., W.G. Characklis, M.H. Turakhia and A.I. Yeh. 1990. Modeling a monopopulation biofilm system: Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Chapter 13 in Biofilms. W.G. Characklis and K.C. Marshall (eds.), John Wiley, New York, NY.

10. Christensen B.E., H. Naper Tønnes, K. Vollan, O. Smidsrød and R. Bakke. 1990. Biofilm removal by low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Biofouling 2:165-175.

11. Bakke R., B. Rivedal and S. Mehan. 1992. Oil reservoir biofouling control. Biofouling, 6, pp.53-60.

12. Lauvik T. and R. Bakke. 1994. Biofilm thickness measurements by variance analysis of optical images. J. of Microb. Meth., 20, pp219-224.

13. Bakke R., E. Hagman, P.H. Ollestad & R. Kommedal 1995. Naturbaserte metoder for nitrogenfjerning (Natural treatment systems for nitrogen removal). Vann, 3, pp425-437.

14. Hagman E., P.H. Ollestad and R. Bakke. 1996. Utforming, effekter og modellering av renseparker. Vann, 2, 306-315.

15. Hagman E., Ollestad P.H., og Bakke R. 1997. Løsninger for rensing av avløp i spedt bebyggelse: Kostnadsanalyse. Norsk Kommunlatek. 5.

16. Paulsen J.E., E. Oppen and R. Bakke. 1996. Biofilm morphology in porous media, a study with microscopic and image techniques Wat. Sci. Tech, 36, No 1, 1-9.

17. Bakke R., Rambekk M. & Horntvedt B. 1997. Styring og overvåking av biologiske renseanalegg. Norsk Kommunlatek. 8, 8-11.

18. Horntvedt, B., Rambekk, M., Bakke, R. 1998. Oscillating conditions to influence the compositions of mixed biological cultures, Wat. Sci. Tech, 37, No 4-5, 259 - 262.

19. Bakke R., Hagman E., Ollestad P.H., Sele K. 2000. Nutrient removal in combined bioreactors and wetland systems in Norway. J. Env. Sci. & Health. 34, 10, pp75-82.

20. Bakke. R., Kommedal R. and Kalvenes S. 2001. Quantification of biofilm accumulation by an optical approach. J. Microb. Meth., 44, pp13-26.

21. Bakke R. and Hustvedt P.R. 2001. Arealavrenning og økologiske rensetiltak på Jæren. Vann, 4, pp327-331.

22. Kommedal R., Bakke R., Dockery J., Stoodley P. 2001. Modelling production of extracellular polymeric substances in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa chemostat culture. Wat. Sci. Tech., 43, 6, pp129-134.

23. Bakke R. 2003. Miljøvernministeren må feie for egen dør. Kronikk om miljøforvaltning i Aftenposten 11.8. pp 7.

24. Braskerud B.C., Tonderski K.S., Wedding B., Bakke R., Blankenberg A.-G.B., Ulén B., Koskiaho J. 2005. Can constructed wetlands reduce the diffuse phosphorus loads to eutrophic water in cold temperate regions? J. of Env. Quality 34:2145-2155.

25. Kommedal R., Milferstedt K, Bakke R., Morgenroth E. 2006. Effects of Initial molecular weight on removal rate of dextran in biofilms. Wat. Res. 40: 1795-1804.

26. Johansen J.-E., Bakke R. 2006. Enhancing hydrolysis with microaeration. Wat. Sci. Tech. 53, No. 8: 43-50.

27. Peiris B. R. H., Rathnasiri P.G., Johansen J.E., Kuhn A., Bakke R. 2006. ADM1 Simulations of hydrogen production. Wat. Sci. Tech. 53, No. 8: 129-137.

28. Botheju, D., Bakke, R. (2008). Implementation of ADM 1 in AQUASIM Biofilm Reactor Compartment. Oral Pres. Proceedings. 49th SIMS Conference on Simulation and Modeling, SIMS 2008, Oslo, Norway.

29. Dinamarca C., Bakke R. 2009. Apparent hydrogen consumption in acid reactors: Observations and implications. Wat. Sci. Tech. 59, No. 7: 1441-1447.

30. Chang L., Bo X., Bakke R. 2009. Biogas from pig manure leachate. Proceedings / Oral Pres. The International Workshop on Strategy for Anaerobic Biotechnology, Xi’an, China: 122-128.

31. Botheju D., Lie. B., Bakke, R. 2009. Oxygen Effects in Anaerobic Digestion. Modelling, Identification and Control, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 191 – 201.

32. Botheju D., Hovland, J., Haugen, H. A., Bakke, R. 2010. Monoethanolamine biodegradation processes. In proceedings of the 2nd Annual Gas Processing Symposium, Doha, Qatar. Published in Advances in Gas Processing, vol. 2 (Book series), ISBN-13: 978-0-444-53588-7, Elsevier, 2010.

33. Botheju D., Li, Y., Hovland, J., Risberg, T., Haugen, H. A., Dinamarca, C., Bakke, R. 2010. Biogasification of waste monoethanolamine generated in post combustion CO2 capture. Adv. in Gas Processing, vol. 2 (Book series), ISBN-13: 978-0-444-53588-7, Elsevier.

34. Botheju D., Svalheim, Ø., Bakke R. 2010. Digestate nitrification for nutrient recovery. The Open Waste Management J., Vol. 3, pp. 1-12.

35. Botheju D., Lie. B., Bakke, R. 2010. Oxygen Effects in Anaerobic Digestion II. Modeling, Identification and Control, 2010, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 55-65.

36. Bergland W., Haugen F., Bakke R. 2010. A cost effective two stage biogas process for organic waste treatment. Oral Pres. Proceedings. Linnæus Eco-Tech 2010 conf., Kalmar, Sweden.

37. Botheju D., Lie B., Bakke R. 2010. Simulation of a biofilm process by the ADM 1-Ox model. In proceedings of the 51st SIMS Conference on Simulation and Modeling, SIMS 2010, Oulu, Finland.

38. Franke W., Granli T., Kuhn G., Bakke R. 2010. Laboratory test method of chemicals to reduce emissions of H2S and odours in wastewater. NOSE 2010 conference proceedings. Chem. Eng. Transactions, Vol. 23.

39. Bergland, W., Haugen, F., Bakke, R. (2010). A Cost Effective Two Stage Biogas Process for Organic Waste Treatment. In proceedings of Linnaeus ECO-TECH'10.

40. Botheju D., Bakke R. 2011. Oxygen effects in anaerobic digestion – A review. The Open Waste Management J., Vol. 4, pp. 1-19.

41. Botheju D., Li, Y., Hovland, J., Haugen, H. A., Bakke, R. 2011. Biological treatment of amine wastes generated in post-combustion CO2 capture. Energy Procedia, Vol. 4, pp. 496-503.

42. Bergland W., Botheju D., Dinamarca C., Bakke R. 2011. Considering culture adaptations to high ammonia concentration in ADM1. In proceedings of the 52. SIMS Conference on Simulation and Modeling, SIMS 2011, Mälardalen U. Sweden.

43. Botheju D., Qin Y., Vasdal K., Bakke R. 2011. Simulation of digestate nitrification based on cow manure. In proceedings of the 52. SIMS Conference on Simulation and Modeling, SIMS 2011, Mälardalen U. Sweden.

44. Haugen F., Bakke R., Lie B. 2011. Mathematical modelling for planning optimal operation of a biogas reactor for dairy manure. Presented at IWA World Congress on Water, Climate and Energy (IWA-WCE), Dublin, May 2012.

45. Bakke R. Bergland W.H. Hovland J. 2011. New Technology for Anaerobic Digestion, Using Granules. In proceedings of the Nordic Bioenergy Conference, Jyväskylä, Finland.

46. Dinamarca, C., Bakke, R. 2011. Process parameters affecting the sustainability of fermentative hydrogen production: A short-review. Int. J. of Energy and Environment; Volum 2.(6) s. 1067-1078.

47. Dinamarca, C., Ganan, M, Liu J., Bakke R. 2011. H2 consumption by anaerobic non-methanogenic mixed cultures. Wat. Sci. Tech.; Vol. 63.(8) s. 1582-1589.

48. Shuai W., Tielin W., Hovland, J., Sørensen H., Jens K.J, Bakke, R. 2011. Anaerobic digestion of MEA reclaimer waste; analytical and process approach. Poster in proceedings of CLIMIT seminar, Oslo, Norway.

49. Haugen, F., Bakke, R., Lie, B 2012. State Estimation of a Pilot Anaerobic Digestion Reactor. Poster of full paper at Nordic Process Control Workshop, DTU, Copenhagen, 25-27 January.

50. Haugen, F., Bakke, R., Lie, B. 2012. Mathematical Modelling for Planning Optimal Operation of a Biogas Reactor for Dairy Manure. Poster at IWA World Congress on Water, Climate and Energy (IWA-WCE), Dublin, 14 – 18 May.

51. Wang S, Hovland J, Bakke R. 2013 Efficiency of the anaerobic digestion of amine wastes. Biotechnol. Lett. DOI 10.1007/s10529-013-1296-1.

52. Shuai, W., Hovland, J., Bakke. R. 2013. Anaerobic degradation of Carbon Capture Reclaimer MEA Waste. Wat. Sci. Tech.; Vol. 67 (11), p 2549-2559.

53. Liu, Y., Zhang, K., Bakke, R., Li, C., Liu, H. 2013 Membrane installation for enhanced up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) performance. J. of Biosci. and Bioeng.; Vol. 116 (3), p 357-361.

54. Haugen F., Bakke R., Lie, B. Modeling and control of a pilot anaerobic digestion reactor. Extended abstract and poster presentation at 13th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, June 25-28, 2013.

55. Haugen, F., Bakke, R., Lie, B. Adapting dynamic mathematical models to a pilot anaerobic digestion

reactor. Modeling, Identification and Control, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 35-54, 2013.

56. Haugen F., Bakke R., Lie, B. An advanced and flexible computer-based system for monitoring and control of a pilot bioreactor. Extended abstract and poster presentation at 11th IWA conference on instrumentation control and automation, Narbonne, France, 18-20 September 2013.

57. Lohani P., Chhetri A., Adhikari J., Bakke R. 2013. Sustainable Biogas Production Potential from Urban Wastewater in Nepal. Int. J. of Envir. Sci. and Devel. vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 595-599.

58. Bakke R. 2013. New Anaerobic Digestion solutions for decentralized Biogas production. Invited lecture at Nordic Baltic Bioenergy, Oslo, 21-22 May.

59. Haugen, F., Bakke, R., Lie, B. 2013. On-off and PI control of methane gas production of a pilot anaerobic digestion reactor. Modeling, Identification and Control, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 139-156.

60. Nordgård A. S. R., Bergland W. H., Bakke R., Østgaard K., Bakke I. Microbial community changes in granule-based UASB reactors due to substrate changes. Poster at the Conference «Biogas Microbiology» 10-12 June 2014 in Uppsala, Sweden.

61. Haugen, F., Bakke, R., Lie, B. 2014. State Estimation and Model-based Control of a Pilot Anaerobic Digestion Reactor. J. of Control Sci. and Eng. vol. 2014, Article ID 572621, 19 pages doi:10.1155/2014/572621.

62. Shuai, W., Hovland, J., Brooks S. Bakke. R. 2014. Detoxifying CO2 capture reclaimer waste by anaerobic digestion. Appl. Biochem. and Biotech, Vol. 172 (3), pp. 776-783. DOI 10.1007/s12010-013-0587-2.

63. Chen Z., Wen Q., Guan H., Bakke R., Ren N. 2014. Anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage in modified septic tanks at low temperature. Envir. Tech., Vol. 35 (17), DOI:10.1080/09593330.2014.894580.

64. Bergland W.H., Dinamarca C., Bakke R. 2014. Efficient biogas production from the liquid fraction of diary manure. Renewable Energy & Power Quality J., Vol.12'14/519.14-Bergland.pdf.

65. Bergland W., Dinamarca C., Bakke R. 2014. Effects of Psychrophilic Storage on Manure as Substrate for Anaerobic Digestion. BioMed Research International, Article ID 712197 doi:10.1155/2014/712197.

66. Chen, Z., Guo, Z., Wen, Q., Huang, L., Bakke, R., Du. M. 2014. A new method for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulating bacteria selection under physical selective pressure. Int. J. of Bio. Macromolecules, Vol. 72, pp. 1329–1334.

67. Lyng K.A., Modahl I.S., Arnøy S., Bakke R., Hovland J. 2014. Costs and global warming potential for a new concept for farm based biogas production. Poster. World Bioenergy Conference, Jönköping, Sweden.

68. Haugen, F., Bakke, R., Lie, B., Vasdal K., Hovland J. 2015. Optimal Design and Operation of a UASB Reactor for Dairy Cattle Manure. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. Vol. 111, pp.203–213, doi:10.1016/j.compag.2015.01.001.

69. Bergland, W.H., Dinamarca, C., Toradzadegan, M., Nordgård A.S.R., Bakke I., Bakke, R., 2015. High Rate Manure Supernatant Digestion. Water Research, Vol. 76, Pages 1–9, doi:10.1016/j.watres.2015.02.051;

70. Lohani P., Wang S., Lackner S., Horn H., Khanal S.N., Bakke R. 2016. ADM1 modeling of UASB treating domestic wastewater in Nepal. Renewable Energy, vol 95, pages 263-268.

71. Sposob M., Dinamarca C., Bakke R. 2016. Temperature impact on autotrophic sludge bed sulphide oxidation. The 13th IWA conference on water and wastewater technologies 13-16 June, Jerez de la Frontera, Spain.

72. Chen, Z., Guo, Z., Wen, Q., Huang, L., Bakke, R., Du. M. 2016. Modeling polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production in a newly developed aerobic dynamic discharge (ADD) culture enrichment process. Chem. Eng. J., Volum 298. pages 36-43.

73. Sposob M., Dinamarca C., Bakke R. 2016. Short term temperature impact on simultaneous biological nitrogen-sulphur treatment in EGSB reactor. Wat. Sci. Tech.; Vol. 74 (5), DOI: 10.2166/wst.2016.359.

74. Bergland W.H., Bakke R. 2016. Modelling anaerobic digestion during temperature and load variations. Int. J. of Energy production and management. Vol. 1(4) Pages 393-402.

75. Guo Z., Chen Z., Wen Q., Huang L., Bakke R., Du M. 2016. Strategy to reduce the acclimation period for enrichment of PHA accumulating cultures. Desalination and Water Treatment Vol.: 57 (60) Pages: 29286-29294.

76. Østgaard K., Kowarz V., Shuai W., Henry I.A., Sposob M., Haugen H.H., Bakke R. 2017. Syringe test screening of microbial gas production activity: Cases denitrification and biogas formation. J. Microb. Meth., 132, pp119–124.

77. Sposob, M., Bakke, R., Dinamarca, C. 2017. Effects of N/S molar ratio on products formation in psychrophilic autotrophic biological removal of sulfide. Water, 9(7):476.

78. Sposob, M., Bakke, R., Dinamarca, C. Metabolic divergence in simultaneous biological removal of nitrate and sulfide for elemental sulfur production under temperature stress. Bioresource Technology, 233:209–215.

79. Shah S., Bergland, W.H., Bakke, R. 2017. Methane from Syngas by Anaerobic Digestion. 58th SIMS Conference on Simulation and Modeling, SIMS 2017, Reykjavik, Iceland.

80. Sposob, M., Bakke, R., Dinamarca, C. 2017. Modeling N/S ratio and temperature influences on simultaneous biological denitrification and sulfide oxidation. 58th SIMS Conference on Simulation and Modeling, SIMS 2017, Reykjavik, Iceland.

81.  Wang S., Ghimire N., Xin G., Janka E, Bakke R. 2017. Efficient high strength petrochemical wastewater treatment in a hybrid vertical anaerobic biofilm (HyVAB) reactor: a pilot study. Water Practice & Technology Vol 12 No 3 doi: 10.2166/wpt.2017.051.

82. Kjørlaug O., Janka E., Bakke R., Nilsen P.J. 2017. Methane Production From The Cambi SolidStream Centrate In An Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor. IWA Sludge Tech. Conference, London, UK.

83.        Nordgård A.S.R., Bergland W.H., Vadstein O., Mironov V., Bakke R., Østgaard K., Bakke I. 2017. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure supernatant at high ammonia concentrations characterized by high abundance of Mathanosaeta and non-euryarchaeotal archaea. Scientific Reports, pp1-14.

84.        Sposob M., Cydzik-Kwiatkowska A., Bakke R., Dinamarca C. 2018. Temperature-induced changes in a microbial community under autotrophic denitrification with sulfide. Process Biochemistry, doi: 10.1016/j.procbio.2018.03.006 Vol 69, pp161-168.

85.        Lohani S.P., Wang S., Bergland W.H., Khanal S., Bakke R. 2018. Modeling temperature effects in anaerobic digestion of domestic wastewater. Water-Energy Nexus, doi: 10.1016/j.wen.2018.07.001

86.        Nordgård A.S.R., Bergland W.H., Bakke R., Østgaard K., Bakke I. 2018. Mapping anaerobic sludge bed community adaptations to manure supernatant in biogas reactors. Scientific Reports. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-34088-1

87.        Eshetu M.M., Todt D., Wakjera E.J., Heistad A., Bakke R. 2018. Sludge blanket anaerobic baffled reactor for source-separated blackwater treatment. Wat. Sci. Tech.; Vol. 78.(6) pp 1249-1259.

88.        Wang S., Savva Y., Bakke R. 2019. A full-scale hybrid vertical anaerobic and aerobic biofilm wastewater treatment system: case study. Wat. Prac. & Tech. Vol 14 No 1 pp 189-197. doi: 10.2166/wpt.2018.123