Carlos Dinamarca

Associate professor

Faculty of Technology, Natural Sciences and Maritime Sciences
Department of Process, Energy and Environmental Technology
Campus Porsgrunn (E-211)


  • Research in environmental biotechnology, biogas, wastewater treatment
  • Project leader/advisor
  • Lecturing in chemistry, reactor design, electrochemistry.



-Ph.D. Environmental Biotechnology (2010), NTNU, Norway.

-M.Sc. Environmental Analysis in Aquaculture (2001)

-Eng. in Aquaculture (1998), Antofagasta University, Chile

-B.Sc. in Marine Science (1995), Antofagasta University, Chile


-  Associate Professor (2010-today); Department of Process, Energy, and Environment, University of South-Eastern Norway (USN), Porsgrunn, Norway.

-  Environmental Engineering Consultant (2009-2019), Dinamarca Consulting, Stathelle, Norway

-  Assistant professor (2004-2009), Telemark University College (TUC), Porsgrunn, Norway.

-  Consultant for Fishing Industry (2) (2001 -2003), Puerto Montt, Chile.

-   Chemistry teacher (2002-2003), secondary and pre-University schools, Santiago & Puerto Montt, Chile

-       Lector, Water Chemistry (2000-2001), University Polytechnic of the Coast (ESPOL), Ecuador.


Articles in peer-review journals

Sivalingam V., Dinamarca C.*, Samarakoon G., Winkler D., Bakke R. 2020. Ammonium as carbon free electron and proton source in microbial electrosynthesis processes. Sustainability (IF=2.592), 2020, 12(8), 3081;

Sivalingam V., Dinamarca C.*, Janka  E., Kukankov S., Wang  S., Bakke R. 2020. Effect of intermittent aeration in hybrid vertical anaerobic biofilm reactor (HyVAB) for reject water treatment. Water (IF=2.524) 2020, 12(4), 1151;

Nelabhotla, A. B. T., Khoshbakhtian, M., Chopra, N., Dinamarca, C.* 2020. Effect of Hydraulic Retention Time on MES Operation for Biomethane Production. Front. Energy Res. (IF=3.630), 27 May 2020 |

Tassew F.A.*, Bergland W., Dinamarca C., Bakke R. 2019. Influences of Temperature and Substrate Particle Content on Granular Sludge Bed Anaerobic Digestion. Appl. Sci. (IF=2.217) 2020, 10, 136;

Janka E., Carvajal D., Wang S., Bakke R., Dinamarca C.* 2019. Treatment of Metformin-Containing Wastewater by a Hybrid Vertical Anaerobic Biofilm-Reactor (HyVAB). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (IF=2.468), 16(21), 4125;

Nelabhotla, A., Bakke, R., Dinamarca, C. * 2019. Performance analysis of a biocathode in bioelectrochemical CO2 reduction. Catalysts (IF=3.444), 9(8), 683;

Tassew F.A.*, Bergland W., Dinamarca, C. Roar Kommedal, Bakke, R. 2019. Granular sludge bed processes in anaerobic digestion of particle rich substrate. Energies (IF=2.707)  2019, 12(15), 2940;

Tassew F.A*., Bergland W., Dinamarca, C. Bakke, R. 2019. Effect of particle disintegration on biomethane potential of particle-rich substrate in batch anaerobic reactors. Appl. Sci. (IF=2.217), 9(14), 2880;

Nelabhotla, A., Dinamarca, C*. 2019. Bioelectrochemical CO2 reduction to methane: MES integration in biogas production process. Appl. Sci. (IF=2.217), 9(6), 1056;

Tassew F.A*., Bergland W., Dinamarca, C. Bakke, R. 2019. Settling velocity and size distribution measurement of anaerobic granular sludge using microscopic image analysis. J. Microbiol. Methods (IF=1.803), 159(1): 81-90.

Ping, A*., Dinamarca, C., Elsayed, M., Zhang, X., Yu, L., Xi, J., Mei, Z. 2019.  Different effects of ozone and aqueous ammonia in a combined pre-treatment method on rice straw and dairy manure fibre for enhancing biomethane production. Bioresource Technology (IF=6.669) Volume 282 Pages 275-284

Nelabhotla, A., Dinamarca, C.* 2018. Electrochemically mediated CO2 reduction for biomethane production: A review. Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol. (IF=4.938), 17(3):531-551.

Nelabhotla, A., Dinamarca, C.* 2018. Optimization of electrochemical treatment of artificial wastewater using cyclic voltammetry. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Develop. 9(8): 218-221.

Sposob, M., Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, A., Bakke, R., Dinamarca, C. * 2018. Temperature induced changes in microbial community under autotrophic denitrification with sulfide. Process Biochem. (IF=2.883) 69 :161-168.

Sposob, M., Bakke, R., Dinamarca, C*. 2017. Effects of N/S Molar Ratio on Product Formation in Psychrophilic Autotrophic Biological Removal of Sulfide. Water (IF=2.524), 9 (7) 476.

Sposob, M., Bakke, R., Dinamarca, C*. 2017. Metabolic divergence in simultaneous biological removal of nitrate and sulfide for elemental sulphur production under temperature stress. Bioresource Technol. (IF=6.669), 233: 209 - 2015.

Sposob, M*., Dinamarca, C., Bakke, R. 2016. Short-term temperature impact on simultaneous biological nitrogen-sulphur treatment in EGSB reactor. Wat. Sci. Technol. (IF=1.624), 74(7), 1610-1618.

Bergland, W.H., Dinamarca, C., Torabzadegan, M., Nordgård, A.S.R., Bakke, I., Bakke, R*., 2015. High Rate Manure Supernatant Digestion. Wat. Res. (IF=7.913) 76, 1-9.

Bergland, W.H., Dinamarca, C., Bakke, R. * 2014. Effects of Psychrophilic Storage on Manures as Substrate for Anaerobic Digestion. BioMed Research International. (IF=2.197), vol. 2014, Article ID 712197, 8 pages.

Bergland W., Dinamarca C., Rune Bakke. * 2014. Efficient Biogas production using the liquid fraction of dairy manure. Renewable Energy & Power Quality Journal (RE & PQJ), No.12, ISSN: 2172-038 X.

Dinamarca C*. 2014 Anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor for the removal of sulphide with NO3- as electron acceptor. Int. J. Energy and Environment, 5(1):111-118.

Dinamarca C.*, Bakke R. 2012. Simultaneous hydrogen production and consumption in anaerobic mixed culture fermentation. Int. J. Energy and Environment, 3(3):323-332.

Dinamarca C.*, Bakke R. 2011. Process parameters affecting the sustainability of fermentative hydrogen production: A short-review. Int. J. Energy and Environment, 2(6):1067-1078.

Dinamarca C.*, Gañán M., Jingxuan L., Bakke R. 2011. H2 consumption by anaerobic non-methanogenic mixed cultures. Wat. Sci. Technol. (IF=1.624), 63(8):1582-9.

Dinamarca C.*, Bakke, R. 2009. Apparent hydrogen consumption in acid reactors: Observations and Implications. Wat. Sci. Technol. (IF=1.624), 59(7):1441-1447.


Articles in peer-review  proceedings

Samarakoon, G., Nelabhotla, A.B., Dinamarca, C., Winkler, D. and Bakke, R. (2019). Modelling Bio-electrochemical CO2 Reduction to Methane. Proceedings of 10th Trondheim Conference on CO2 Capture and Storage. SINTEF Academic Press

Sivalingam, V., Ibrahim O., Kukankov, S.,  Omodara B., Janka E.,  Wang S., Dinamarca C., Haugen, H., Bakke R. 2019. Chemical equilibrium model to investigate scaling in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR). Proceedings of The 60th SIMS Conference on Simulation and Modelling SIMS 2019, August 12-16, Västerås, Sweden.,

Sposób, M., Bakke, R., & Dinamarca, C. 2017. Modelling N/S ratio and temperature effects in simultaneous biological denitrification and sulfide oxidation. The 58th International Conference of Scandinavian Simulation Society. Paper.

Sposób, M., Dinamarca, C., Bakke, R. 2016. Temperature impact on autotrophic sludge bed sulphide oxidation. The 13th IWA Leading Edge Conference on Water and Wastewater Technologies 13-16 June, Jerez de la Frontera, Spain.

Bergland, W.H., Dinamarca, C., Bakke, R., 2015. Temperature effects in Anaerobic Digestion Modelling. In proceedings of SIMS 2015 the 56nd International Conference of Scandinavian Simulation Society. Linköping University Electronic Press.

Bergland W., Botheju D., Dinamarca C. and Bakke R. 2011. Considering culture adaptations to high ammonia concentration in ADM1. In proceedings of the 52. SIMS Conference on Simulation and Modelling, SIMS 2011, Mälardalen U. Sweden.

Botheju D., Li Y., Hovland J., Risberg T., Haugen H.A., Dinamarca C. Bakke R. 2010.
Biogasification of waste monoethanolamine generated in post combustion CO2 capture. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Gas Processing Symposium. Elsevier 2010 ISBN 978-0-444-53588-7. s. 1-9

Botheju D., Li Y., Hovland J., Risberg T., Haugen H.A. Dinamarca, C. and Bakke R. 2009. "Oxygenated Anaerobic Treatment of Amine Wastes Generated in Post-combustion CO2 Capture", 5th Trondheim Conference on CO2 Capture, Transport and Storage, Trondheim, June 16-17.

Dinamarca C., Bakke, R. 2008. Hydrogen consumption in bio-hydrogen process modelling. In proceedings of the 49th Scandinavian Conference on Simulation and Modelling.

Dinamarca C., Bakke R. 2006. Challenges in hydrogen production fermentations processes. In proceedings 6th EcoBaltica conf., St. Petersburg, Russia.

Rathnasiri P.G., Dinamarca C. and Bakke R. 2005. Membrane controlled micro-aeration in digesters. Proceedings Baltic Bio refinery Symposium. Aalborg University Esbjerg, Denmark.

Massaut L., Sonnenholzner S., Saldias C., Calderón J., and Boyd C.E. 2001. Case Study of Ecuadorian Shrimp Farming III: Farm Management and Concentration of Potential Pollutants in Effluents. Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific/World Bank, Bangkok, Thailand. 55pp.

Saldias C., Jorquera M., Riquelme C. 1999. Bacterial (Vibrio) Tolerance to Copper in Northern Scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) Tissue in the North and Central Zone of Chile. Proceedings: XIX Congress of Marine Sciences, Antofagasta, Chile.


Publications as abstract/Posters in conference expositions

Nelabhotla A., Dinamarca C. 2018. Bioelectrochemical methane production in reject water from anaerobic digesters. 2ND International Conference Bioresource Technology for Bioenergy Bioproducts and Environmental Sustainability 16-19 September Stiges, Spain.

Dinamarca C, Carvajal D., Borges K., Franke W., Torabzadegan.,  Bakke R. 2018. Enhanced anaerobic digestion by semi-continuous micro-dosage of Ca(NO3)2. 2ND International Conference Bioresource Technology for Bioenergy Bioproducts and Environmental Sustainability 16-19 September Stiges, Spain.

Dinamarca C., Hashemi S., Niazi S., Janka E., Heggholmen A., Wang S., Bakke R. Biological reject water treatment for enhanced carbon recovery. 2ND International Conference Bioresource Technology for Bioenergy Bioproducts and Environmental Sustainability 16-19 September Stiges, Spain.

Tassew F., Dinamarca C., Bakke R. 2018. Image analysis to measure settling characteristics of granular sludge” is selected for a poster presentation to IWA Biofilms: Granular Sludge Conference 2018 to be held from March 18-21, 2018 in Delft, The Netherlands.

Chen Z., R. Bakke, C. Dinamarca and Wu W. 2007. A simple two-stage anaerobic digestion process consisting of a leach-bed and a biogas reactor used for treating agriculture organic waste. Oral Pres. 3. Int. Green Energy Conf., Wästerås, Sweden.

Stjernholm H., Dinamarca C., Botheju D. and Bakke R. 2007. Liquid extraction of substrate from manure for efficient biogas generation. Proceedings. Oral Pres. Eco-Tech 2007 conf., Kalmar, Sweden.

Massaut L., Saldias C., Sonnenholzner S. 2002. Effluent, nutrient budget and management practices in shrimp ponds of Ecuador. Abstracts, World Aquaculture 2002, Beijing, China.


Other publications

Dinamarca C. 2010. Homoacetogenic H2 Consumption in Fermentative Hydrogen Production Processes. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Telemark University College 2010 (ISBN 9788247123409) (2010:182)

Dinamarca C., Vissers I. 2000. Basic Manual of Semi-Intensive and Intensive Shrimp Culture. Foundation Cenaim-Espol. VVOB. 46pp. (In Spanish).