Salman Nazir

Professor

Faculty of Technology, Natural Sciences and Maritime Sciences
Department of Maritime operations
Campus Vestfold (D3-66)
Salman Nazir is a Professor at the University of South-Eastern Norway, in the Department of Maritime Operations. He is the Head of Training and Assessment Research Group (TARG). He received his Masters from Hanyang University, South Korea, in Chemical Engineering (Specialization Process System Engineering), and PhD in Industrial Chemical Engineering (Specialization in Human Factors), from Politecnico di Milano, Italy. Prof. Nazir’s research work is focused on Human Factors, Training Methods, Virtual Reality Training Simulators, Training Syllabus, Performance Indices, Performance Assessment, Performance Management, Learning Processes, Complex socio-technical systems and Situational Awareness. He is author/co-author of 48 peer reviewed journals and 27 peer reviewed conferences and 11 peer reviewed book chapters in esteemed international journals and conferences. Prof. Nazir has won several awards, scholarships and research grants during his career (please see below for further details). In order to develop cutting edge solutions with multi-disciplinary approach, he has been collaborating with Human Factors Specialists, Cognitive and Computer Scientists, Maritime Experts and Practitioners. He was awarded Cum Laude (outstanding honour) with the title of his PhD.

Responsibilities

 

CV

   Projects, Awards and Achievements (selective)

  • Scientific Leader in COAST (Centre of Excellence in Maritime Simulator Training and Assessment), as proposed under SFU (Center for Excellence in Education) scheme which is at final stage of evaluation by DIKU (Direktoratet for internasjonalisering og kvalitetsutvikling i høyere utdanning)
  • Project Coordinator and Leader in the EU Horizon2020 project: Enhancing Human Performance in Complex Socio-technical Systems (ENHANCE)
  • Session Chair at the Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) conference, 2019, Washington D.C.
  • Participated as Scientific Committee at the Automated And Digital Maritime Workshop at the Liverpool John Moores University funded by the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport (CILT), July 2019
  • Invited by the Executive Committee as the Session Chair of the Social Impact Session at the IAMUC in AGA20, 1 November 2019.
  • Won a grant of 400 000 NOK (approx. 50 K Euros) under MARKOM 2020 (Workshops on Training and Performance Assessment in the maritime domain, 2015)
  • Won a grant for PhD position funded by Maritime Technology and Innovation, MTDI, funded by MARKOM 2020
  • Chair of Human Factors in Management and Leadership
  • Achieved Cum Laude (highest honour) for the PhD title
  • Recognized as the highest published PhD researcher at Politecnico di Milano
  • Invited guest speaker at 2nd Offshore safety & risk, Forum 24 to 25 March 2015, Bergen, Norway
  • Invited guest speaker (entitle: Advances in Training Methods and Assessment procedures for industrial operators) at Buskerud and Vestfold University College, Norway (August 2013)
  • Invited guest speaker at University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany (entitle: Impact of Training on Operator Performance) (September 2013)
  • Participated (officially) in the organization of the 5th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (1200 delegates from 62 countries)
  • Designed and conducted series of experiments to determine the effectiveness of different types of training methods and contributed to introducing novelty in training and assessment methods for complex systems
  • Won research grant (aimed at young researchers) from Politecnico di Milano (March to September 2011) under supervision of prof. Davide Manca
  • Won research grant (aimed at young researchers) from Politecnico di Milano (from July to September 2013) under supervision of prof. Davide Manca
  • Adapted models for Situation Awareness (SA) and identified relevant factors influencing SA for the operators of the process industry and for the mariners/seafarers
  • Introduced the theoretical concept of evaluating Distributed Situation Awareness by devising performance indicators and later validated the theory with an experiment.
  • Contributed in development of the simulated virtual/3D model of a refinery section of the process industry (from both engineering and human factors perspective)
  • Worked with a team of different backgrounds (computer scientists, experiment psychologists, cognitive scientists, and process engineers) to develop a training (and performance assessment et) simulator for catalyst injection in polymerization processes
  • Developed and conducted an experiment to investigate the impact of training on a chemical operation i.e. the catalyst injection in polymerization processes
  • Developed Key Performance Indicators and Operator Performance Indicators for industrial processes, training evaluations and performance assessment

Career timeline

Sept 2019

  • Professor at the Faculty of Technology, Natural Sciences and Maritime Sciences, Department of Maritime Operations, University of South-Eastern Norway (USN)

Sept 2015

  • Associate Professor at Maritime Technology and Innovation Department, HBV

Jan 2015 – Sept 2015

  • Postdoc at Department of Maritime Technology and Innovation (Training and Assessment Research Group), USN

Aug. 2014 – Dec. 2014

  • Researcher at the Department of Maritime Technology and Innovation, Buskerud and Vestfold University College

Mar. - 2014 – Jul. - 2014

·         Postdoc (temporary research fellow) at PSE-Lab at Department of Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

2011 - 2013

  • PhD in Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (with cum laude/honours), Politecnico di Milano, Italy. Specialization: Human Factors for complex systems

2009 - 2011

  • Lecturer in the chemical engineering department of a growing university named COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan

 2007 - 2009

  • Masters in Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, South Korea, CGPA 4.06/4.5 (Grade A). Specialization: Process System Engineering
  • Graduate research assistant at Process System Engineering, Hanyang University, South Korea.

 2002 - 2006

  • B.Sc. in Chemical Engineering, Bahuddin Zakariya University,   Pakistan (2nd position among 106 students, 2nd annual)
  • Invited guest speakers at the international symposium in Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of information and technology, Islamabad (June 2010)
  • Qualified for a prodigious scholarship for masters in Chemical Engineering from South Korea (2007 – 2009)
  • Awarded with merit scholarship by Hanyang University, South Korea (2008)
  • Selected for attending 18th (July 2007) & 19th (July 2008) International Youth Forum held in Seoul, South Korea
  • Contributed in development of curriculum, infrastructure and laboratories at the department of chemical engineering at COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan (2010)
  • Editor of e-Newsletter of Chemical Engineering Department, COMSATS, Lahore, (2010 to 2011)
  • Ranked in top 5 positions among 106 students in bachelors at NFC-IET, Pakistan (2006)
  • Attained 2nd position in the first professional of Bachelors of Engineering at NFC-IET, Multan, Pakistan (2002)
  • Declared as best debater in various competitions in high school (Multan Gems School, 1999)

Supervision

  • On-going: 6 Master Students 
  • Completed: 3 Master Students + 6 Bachelor Students
  • Ongoing PhD Automated Performance Assessment in Maritime Operations.
  • Co-supervision of PhD students from Liverpool John Moores University, UK

 

Academic Experience

  • Researcher at the Department of Maritime Technology and Innovation (Human Factors  research group), Buskerud and Vestfold University College (from August to December,
  • Research Fellow at PSE-Lab at Department of Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (from March to July 2014)
  • Research grant holder (aimed for young researchers) under the supervision of prof., Davide Manca, Chemical engineering department, Politecnico di Milano (June 2013 till July 2014)
  • Visiting researcher at the Department of Computer Science and Cognitive Science, University of Duisburg-Essen (from September to November 2013)
  • Visiting researcher at the Department of Maritime Technology and Innovation (Human Factors research group), Buskerud and Vestfold University College (from July to September 2013)
  • Research grant holder (aimed for young researchers) under the supervision of prof. Davide Manca, Chemical engineering department, Politecnico di Milano (March to September 2011)
  • Lecturer (teaching assistant) for the laboratory lessons and exercises for courses Instrumentation and Process Control of Chemical Plants, Process Systems Engineering (2011 to 2014) at Chemical Engineering Department, Politecnico di Milano
  • Visiting lecturer for the course Risk-Based Decision Making In Complex Systems at Chemical Engineering Department, Politecnico di Milano
  • Lecturer/researcher in the chemical engineering department of a growing university named COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan (2009 - 2011)
  • Graduate researcher in Process Systems Engineering laboratory as a graduate student at Hanyang University, South Korea (2007 - 2009)
  • Part-time teaching experience (private) of English, responsible for the coaching of IELTS and for speaking, writing and presentation skills (2005-2006)

Teaching Experience

  • Courses
    • Human Technology Organization (MTDI, Norway)
    • Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer 
    • Process Economics (2009) (Chemical Engg. department, COMSATS)
    • Instrumentation and Process Control of Chemical Plants, (Chemical Eng. department, Politecnico di Milano) 
    • Process Systems Engineering (Chemical Eng. department, Politecnico di Milano)
    • Calculus for Chemical Engineering (Chemical Engg. department, Politecnico di Milano)
    • Risk-Based Decision Making in Complex Systems (visiting lecturer, Chemical Engg. department, Politecnico di Milano)
    • Organization and leadership (visiting lecturer, HBV)
    • Human Element in Shipping (visiting lecturer, HBV)

Selective Scientific Collaborations

·                 Prof. Zaili Yang, Professor of Maritime Transport, Co-Director of Liverpool Logistics, Offshore and Marine (LOOM) Research Institute, School of Engineering, Technology and Maritime Operations, Liverpool John Moores University

·                 Prof. Annette Kluge, Computer Science and Cognitive Science, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany.

·                 Prof. Alberto Gallace, Department of Psychology, University of Milan-Bicocca, Italy.

·                 Dr. Nicola Paltrinieri, Scientist at SINTEF, Norway.

·                 Prof. Alessandra Beretta, Professor in Catalysis and Catalytic Processes research group at POLIMI.

·                 Prof. Davide Manca. PSE-Lab, Chemical Engineering department Politecnico di Milano, Italy

·                 Prof. Hokyoung Blake Ryu, Professor at the Graduate School of Innovation and Technology Management, Department of Industrial Engineering, Hanyang University, South Korea.

·                 Prof. Paulo Carvalho, Leading expert on resilience engineering and safety in sociotechnical systems, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

·                 Dr. Sashidharan Komandur, Associate professor, Ålesund University College.

·                 Beata Mrugalska, Ph.D., Poznan University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering Management, Chair of Ergonomics and Quality Management

·                 Working closely with prof. Kjell Ivar Øvergåard at USN and Collaborating with prof., Halvor Schøyen, prof., Anne Haugen Gausdal, prof. Karina Bakke Lokken Hjelmervik from MTDI as well as with Bent Moskvil from IMAR, Norway

Publications

[H-index of 15, i10-index of 23 (ref: Google scholar): 47 articles in peer-reviewed journals, 29 conference proceedings, 11 peer-reviewed book chapters, 2019]

I.             ARTICLES IN PEER-REVIEWED JOURNALS (selected)

1.   Process equipment common attributes for inherently safer sustainable process design at the preliminary design stage - Shariff, A. M., Buang, A., Athar, M., Nazir, S. (2019) Process Safety and Environmental Protection - DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2019.05.033  

2.   Maritime simulator training across Europe: A comparative study - Nazir, S., Jungefeldt, S., Sharma, A. (2018) Journal of Maritime Affairs, 1-28 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13437-018-0157-0

3.   Consistency in the development of performance assessment methods in the maritime domain - Ernstsen, J., Nazir, S (2018) Journal of Maritime Affairs, 17(1), 71-90 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13437-018-0136-5

4.   Simulator Training with maritime complex tasks – An experimental study - Hjelmervik K., Nazir S. & Myhrvold, A. (2018) Journal of maritime affairs, 17(1), 17-30 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13437-017-0133-0

5.   Use of evidential reasoning for eliciting Bayesian subjective probabilities in human reliability analysis: a maritime case - Yang, Z., Abujafaar, K., Qu, Z., Wang, J. & Nazir, S. (2016) Journal of Ocean Engineering (Accepted with minor corrections)

6.   Situation Awareness information requirements for maritime navigation: A goal-directed task analysis of navigators - Sharma, A., Nazir, S. & Ernstsen, J. Safety Science (Accepted with minor corrections)

7.   Operator Training Simulator in Virtual Reality Environment for Process Operators: A review - Patel, D., Manca, D., Nazir, S., Sharma, S. (2018) Virtual Reality, 1-19 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-018-0354-3

8.   The level of automation in emergency quick disconnect decision making - Imset M., Kjørstad M., Falk K., Nazir S. (2018) Journal of marine science and engineering, 6(1), 17 DOI: 10.3390/jmse6010017 

9.   Distributed Situation Awareness in pilotage operations: Implications and Challenges. - Sharma, A., & Nazir, S. (2017) TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, 11(2), 103-107 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12716/1001.11.02.11

10.  Towards automated performance assessment for maritime navigation - Øvergård, K. I., Nazir, S., Solberg, A. S. (2017) TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, 11(2), 43-48 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12716/1001.11.02.03

11.   Safety Management on the Bridge: Safety Cultural Factors for Crew Member´s Safety Behaviour - Nazir, S. Xiao, X. (In press) TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation

12.  Human Error in pilotage operations - Ernstsen, J., Nazir, S., TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation 12(1), 49-57 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12716/1001.12.01.05

13.   A STAMP-based causal analysis of the Korean Sewol Ferry Accident. - Kim, T. E., Nazir, S., Øvergård, K. I. (2016).  Safety Science, 83, 93-110.  DOI: 10.1016/j.ssci.2015.11.014

14.   Human error and response to alarms in process safety - Mrugalska, B., Nazir, S., Tytyk, E., & Øvergård, K. I. (2016). Journal of the Facultad de Minas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Medellin Campus, 83(197), 81-86 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15446/dyna.v83n197.57589

15.   How extreme environments can impact the training of industrial operators - Manca, D., Nazir, S., Komulainen, L & Øvergård, K. I. (2016)  Chemical Engineering Transactions, 52, 193-198 DOI: 10.3303/CET1653033

16.   Systemising Performance Indicators in the Assessment of Complex Sociotechnical Systems. - Ernstsen, J., Nazir, S. and Manca, D. (2016) Chemical Engineering Transactions 52, 187-192 DOI: 10.3303/CET1653032

17.   Collaborative Virtual Environment for Training Teams in Emergency Situations. - Passos, C., Nazir, S., Mol, A. C. A. and Carvalho, P. V. R. (2016) Chemical Engineering Transactions, 52, 217-222 DOI: 10.3303/CET1653037

18.   The role of situation awareness in accidents of large-scale technological systems - Naderpour, M., Nazir, S. and Jie Lu (2015) Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 97, 13-24 DOI: 10.1016/j.psep.2015.06.002

19.   Impact of Training Methods on Distributed Situation Awareness of Industrial Operators - Nazir, S., L. J. Sørensen, K. I. Øvergård, D. Manca (2015) Safety Science, 73, 136-145  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2014.11.015

20.   Critical incidents during dynamic positioning: operators’ situation awareness and decision-making in maritime operations - Øvergård, K. I., Sørensen, L. J., Nazir, S., Martinsen T. J. (2015) Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 16(4), 366-387 DOI: 10.1080/1463922X.2014.1001007

21.   Towards effective training for process and maritime industries - Nazir, S., Øvergård, K. I., Yang, Z. L. (2015) Procedia Manufacturing (2015) 3, 1519-1526 DOI: 10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07.409

22.   Immersive Virtual Reality For Decision Making In Process Industry: Experiment Results - Colombo, S., Nazir, S., Manca, D.  SPE Economics & Management, pre-print, Vol 6, issue 4 (2014). DOI: 10.2118/164993-PA

23.    Experiment-based decision making in complex systems - Colombo, S., Nazir, S., Gallace, A., Manca, D. (2014) Chemical Engineering Transactions, 36, 85-90 DOI: 10.3303/CET1436015

24.    How distributed situation awareness influences process safety - Nazir, S., Sorensen, L.J., Overgård, K.I., Manca, D. (2014) Chemical Engineering Transactions, 36, 409-414  DOI: 10.3303/CET1436069

25.   Testing and analyzing different training methods for industrial operators: an experimental approach - Nazir, S., Colombo, S., Manca, D. (2013) Computer-Aided Chemical Engineering, 32, 667-672  DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63234-0.50112-3

26.   Virtual Reality and Augmented-Virtual Reality as tools to Train industrial operators - Nazir, S., Totaro, R., Brambilla, S., Colombo, S., Manca, D. (2012) Computer-Aided Chemical Engineering, 30, 1398-1401  DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-59520-1.50138-X

27.   The role of Situation Awareness for the operators of process industry - Nazir, S., Colombo, S., Manca, D. (2012) Chemical Engineering Transactions, 26, 303-308 DOI: 10.3303/CET1226051 

28.   Impact of Simulation Fidelity on Student Self-confidence and Perceived Skill Development in Engine Room Simulators -Renganayagalu, S.K., Mallam, S., Nazir, S., Ernstsen,  J., Haavardtun, P.  International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Transnav. (Manuscript under review)

29.   Exploring teamwork in maritime pilotage operations - Ernstsen, J., Nazir, S. Ergonomics (Manuscript under review)

30.   Distributed Situation Awareness in a Demanding Maritime Operation: A Case Study of the Subsea Segment - Norstein, E., Sharma, A., Jungefeldt, S., Nazir, S.  International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Transnav. (Manuscript under review)

31.   The Human Element in Future Maritime Operations - Perceived Impact of Autonomous Shipping - Mallam, S., Nazir, S., Sharma, A.  Ergonomics (Manuscript under review)

 

II.           PEER-REVIEWED CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS (selected)

1.   Design of Experiment Comparing Users of Virtual Reality Head-Mounted Displays and Desktop Computers - Mallam, SC., Nazir, S., Renganayagalu, SK., Ernstsen, J., Veie, S.  Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, 240-249  DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-96077-7_25

2.   Virtual Reality Simulators in the Process Industry: A Review of Existing Systems and the Way Towards ETS - Cibulka, J., Mirtaheri, P., Nazir, S., Manca, D., Komulainen, T.M.  Proceedings of The 9th EUROSIM Congress on Modelling and Simulation, EUROSIM DOI: http://hdl.handle.net/10642/3731

3.   Bayesian Network for Assessing Performance in Complex Navigation – Conceptual Model - Ernstsen, J., Musharraf, Mallam, Nazir, S. & Veitch (2018) Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 62(1), 1751–1755.  DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1541931218621396

4.   Bayesian Model of Operator Challenges in Maritime Pilotage. - Ernstsen, J., Musharraf, & Nazir, S. (2018) Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 62(1), 1813–1817.  DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1541931218621411

5.   Simulator based maritime training – A comparative study - Nazir, S. & Jungfeldt, S. Proceedings of International Association of Maritime Universities,  11 – 15 October 2017, Varna, Bulgaria

6.   Advance use of Training Simulator in Maritime Education and Training: A questionnaire study - Nazir, S. & Hjelmervik, K. Proceeding of the 8th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2017). Los Angeles, California, USA, 17th-21st July 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-60018-5_35

7.   Motigravity: a new VR system to increase performance and safety in space operations simulation and rehabilitation medicine - Del Mastro A., Schlacht I.L., Benyouce Y., Groemer G. & Nazir S. Proceeding of the 8th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2017). Los Angeles, California, USA, 17th-21st July 2017 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-60525-8_22

8.   Design of experiment comparing users of virtual reality head-mounted displays and desktop computers - Mallam S., Nazir S., Renganayagalu, S., Ernstsen, J., Veie S., Emilson A.  Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association Florence, Italy. 26th-30th August 2018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-96077-7_25

9.   Computer-supported collaborative learning: An intervention in maritime education and training - Sharma A., Nazir S., Wiig A. C., Sellberg C., Imset M., Mallam S.  Proceeding of the 9th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2018). Orlando, Florida, USA, 22nd-26th July 2018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93882-0_1

10.  Perspectives on autonomy – Exploring future applications and implications for safety-critical domains - Mallam S., Nazir S., Sharma A., Veie S.  Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association Florence, Italy.  26th-30th August 2018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-96080-7_47

11.  Use of evidential reasoning for eliciting Bayesian subjective probabilities in human reliability analysis. - Abujaafar, K. M., Qu, Z., Yang, Z., Wang, J., Nazir, S. & Øvergård, K. I.  Proceedings of the SoSE2016 ’SoSe and Cyber-Physical Systems, 12th-16th June 2016 in Kongsberg Norway, (pp. 1-6). IEEE DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/SYSOSE.2016.7542948

12.   Enhancing the effectiveness of marine engine room simulator-based training - Nazir, S. and Kim T Proceedings of the International Association of Maritime Universities Annual General Meeting, 26th-29th October 2016, Haiphong, Vietnam

13.    Advances in Human Factors, Business Management, Training and Education - Kantola, J.I., Barath, T., Nazir, S., Andre, T.  Proceedings of the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Human Factors, Business Management and Society, 27th-31st July, 2016, Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA, Springer  DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-42070-7

14.    Modelling Adequacy of Organisation in Human Reliability Analysis – A Case of Marine Engineering Operations - Abujaafar K.M., Yang, Z. L., J. Wang, Nazir, S., Øvergård, K. I. Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference ESREL 2015, at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, in Zürich pp. 357 – 362.

15.    The Impact of Trainer of Training Transferability. - Nazir, S. & Øvergård, K. I., & Manca, D.  In K. I. Fostervold, S. Å. K. Johnsen, L. Rydstedt and R. G. Watten (Eds.) Creating Sustainable Work Environments, (C2-5 – C2-9). Lillehammer, 1st-4th November 2015, Lysaker, Norway: Norwegian society for ergonomics and human factors DOI: http://hdl.handle.net/11250/2486737

16.    Morphological Based Mechanism for Adsorption of Hg from Natural Gas using Solid Supported Ionic Liquids - T. Abbas, M.I. Abdul Mutalib, A. Bustam, Nazir, S., M. Abai and E. Khan Proceedings of the International Gas Research Union Conference 2014, Copenhagen, Denmark 17th-19th September

17.    Can immersive virtual environments make the difference in training industrial operators? - Nazir, S., A. Kluge, D. Manca, in D. De Waard, K De Waard, D., Toffetti, A., [more] (Eds.) (2014), Human Factors: a view from an integrative perspective. Proceedings HFES Europe Chapter Conference, 251-265, Turin 2013

18.    Virtual Reality as Effective Means for Training: Results of Experiments Conducted with a Plant Simulator - Colombo, S., Nazir, S., Manca, D.  Proceedings of SPE European HSE Conference and Exhibition Health, Safety, Environment and Social Responsibility, 405-411, 2013

19.     Minimizing the risk in the process industry by using a plant simulator: a novel approach - Nazir, S., Colombo, S., Manca, D.  Proceedings of the AIDIC Conference Series, 11, 271-280, 2013   DOI: 10.3303/ACOS1311028