Photonics, Optics, Lasers, Imaging
Photonics, Lasers, Imaging
Born Aug 14, 1971, Swedish/Pakistan dual citizen, married with two kids
2005: Ph.D. Photonics and Microwave Engineering, Information Communication Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden, www.kth.se
Thesis title: Photonic devices with MQW active material and waveguide gratings: modelling and characterisation
Supervisors: Prof. Lars Thylen, Dr. Richard Schatz
2000: M.Sc. Electrical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia
1994: B.Sc. Electrical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
2007: Associate Professor, Institute of Micro Nano Systems Technology, University College Southeast Norway, Tønsberg, Norway www.hbv.no
2006: Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, KFUPM, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
2005: Test Engineer, Syntune Lasers, Stockholm, Sweden
1998: Research Assistant/Lab Engineer, KFUPM, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
1995: Assistant Manager Optics Division, National Engineering and Scientific Commission, Pakistan
1994: Trainee Engineer, Carrier Telephone Industries, Islamabad, Pakistan
Activities and other merits of relevance
· Reviewer for several scientific journals: Semiconductor Science and Technology, Applied Optics, Optics Express, Optical Engineering, Journal of Optical Society of America, Optics Letters, Chinese Optics Letters, Optical and Quantum Electronics, typically 10-20 per year
· Assigned as committee member of doctoral dissertations and trial lectures on three occasions
· Plenary Speaker. International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST), Jan 2010, Islamabad, Pakistan
· Best Researcher Award 2010 - University College Vestfold, Norway
· Member organizing committee: Micromechanics and Microsystems Europe (MME) conference 2011 Tønsberg, Norway
· Member Editorial Board: Journal “Mathematical Problems in Engineering”, Hindawi Publishers,
Project funding obtained
· Project: Hybrid Integrated Components for Optical Display Systems (HICFODS), year 2008-2012, funded by Research Council of Norway and poLight AS. I was project participant and responsible for three work-packages, and co-supervisor of PhD student. Granted amount 10 Million NOK.
· Project: MEMS devices for speckle reduction in laser projectors (MEMS-DeSpeck), year 2010-2011, funded by Research Council of Norway. I was the main applicant and the principle investigator. Granted amount 400K NOK.
· Project: Monolithic uncooled terahertz edge emitting lasers (THZEEL), year 2011-2012, funded by Oslofjordfond Norway, I was the main applicant and the principle investigator, Granted amount 400K NOK.
· Project: Vertical Transistor Laser- year 2011-2013, funded by Swedish Research Council. I was co-applicant together with Royal Inst. of Technology, Sweden. I was responsible for device design and simulations of Transistor VCSEL Lasers. Granted amount 3.0 Million SEK.
· Project: Next generation projection technology based on laser illumination (LasePro), year 2012-2014, funded by Norwegian Research Council. I was the main applicant and responsible for two work-packages. Supervisor of Ph.D. student and Postdoc researcher, Granted amount 5.9 Million NOK. The project involved industry academic collaboration and technology development of high-lumen Laser projectors.
· Project: SOLMAT – Earth abundant solar energy materials. Funded by Norwegian Research Council. Year 2014- I was co-applicant and responsible for one work-package. Granted amount 4.3 Million NOK
· Funding from PhD NanoNetwrok Norway for travel grants and device fabrication, 400K NOK
· PhD student funding from Education Department Norway (KD), amount 2.5Million NOK
· Project: HiLase, funded by Research Council of Norway and Industry, 2015-2018. I am the main applicant and project manager, supervisor of Ph.D. student, Granted amount 11 Million NOK. The project involves technology development for high resolution high lumen laser projectors.
· Asmat Nawaz- Ph.D. student, 2013- 2017, ongoing (Main supervisor)
· Trinh Thi Kim Tran – Ph.D. student, 2011-2015, completed (Main supervisor)
· Øyvind Svensen. PostDoc researcher (2013 – 2015), completed (Main supervisor)
· Zhaomin Tong – Ph.D. student, 2008-2012, completed (Co-supervisor)
· Sibi Subramanium – M.Sc. student, 2011-2012, completed (Main supervisor)
· Shivshankar Ghuge – M.Sc. student, 2010-2011, completed (Main supervisor)
· Wenhong Gao – M.Sc. student 2010-2011, completed (Co-supervisor)
· Laxma Billa, Ph.D. student, 2014- 2017, ongoing (Co-supervisor)
· Eivind Bardalen, Ph.D. student, 2014- 2017, ongoing (Co-supervisor)
· Mahmoud Farghaly, Ph.D. student, 2014- 2017, ongoing (Co-supervisor)
· Burak Cunbul, Ph.D. (Main supervisor)
· Mustafa Balci, Postdoc, (Co-supervisor)
· Developed a new Ph.D. level course "OPT9005: Optics for micro- nano- systems" as part of National Research School in Micro-Nano Technology in Norway, conducted five times
· Developed a special topics course "Introduction to Geometrical/Fourier/Statistical Optics" for the PhD students, conducted twice
· Developed Bachelor level course “Introductory Electromagnetics”, conducted six times
· Taught Master level course “Semiconductor Devices SED1M”, conducted three times
National and international collaboration
· Prof. Astrid Aksnes, Prof. Ulf Osterberg, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway (joint publications)
· Prof. Mattias Hammar, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden (joint publications and funding applications)
· Lucio Kilcher, Lemoptix SA, Lausanne, Switzerland (joint work on speckle reduction in laser projectors)
· Phoxtal, Stockholm, Sweden: I helped with the design of InP semiconductor lasers
· poLight AS, Horten, Norway: I helped with the measurement and evaluation of tuneable micro-lenses
· Nordic Quantum Computing Group AS, collaboration on IEC/TC 113 on Nano-photonics vocabulary
· Dr. A. V. Pravdevtsev, R&D group constructive cybernetics, Moscow, (joint publications)
· Dr. Vladimir Kartashov, poLight AS, (joint publications)
Administrative and Leadership
- Organized a research collaboration between IMST HiVe and Nano-Technology Centre University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan. Mutual agreement of joint research and teaching activities was signed. As a start, two quota scholarship students were hired for M.Sc. and Ph.D. at IMST HiVe under the Quota Stipend Scheme.
- Organized the SHP proposal writing on TeraHertz Technology, submitted to SHP program Research Council of Norway. I was the main author of the full proposal, and responsible for writing the main proposal, budget planning and submission.
- Completed the Research Leadership Course organized by University of Oslo.
- I, together with Prof. X. Chen, have developed an Optics and THz Laboratory being used by M.Sc. and Ph.D. students for research work. All the equipment and simulation software is bought through external financing under various granted projects. Available equipment: Optical table, different lasers, CCD cameras, laser driver, temperature controller, optical spectrum analyzer, THz source (325-500 GHz) and power meter, opto-mechanical components, computer, Software Zemax, Comsol RF, CST Microwave Studio,
- I am the manager of the Optics group since 2014. I am the main responsible person for proposal writing in the group and running the optics and THz Lab.
- Organized Friday Seminar series where speakers were invited from industry and academia for talks on various topics of scientific and technological interests.
- Participated in Young Researcher Night. Young students from high school were invited to see various technologies being developed at the school.
- Established broad relationship with the optics industry with active collaboration and joint projects. Such as: PoLight, IgnisDisplay, Projection Design/Barco, Lemoptics, Cyviz, Phoxtal
- Contributed to the development of world-first Transistor-VCSEL operating at room temperature with record performance in a joint project with Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
- Developed improved numerical algorithms for optical waveguide simulations
- Developed 1550nm semiconductor lasers with record lasing up to 150◦C
- Developed improved simulations algorithms and new optical designs for infrared imaging cameras in the 3-5µm and 8-12µm wavebands
- Developed improved methods and devices for speckle noise reduction in laser projectors
List of journal publications:
h-index = 11, total citations: 335 (Source: Web of Knowledge)
h-index = 15, total citations: 633 (Source: Google Scholar)
J1. H. A. Jamid and M. N. Akram, "A new higher-order finite-difference approximation scheme for the method of lines", IEEE J. of Lightwave Technology, March 2001.
J2. H. A. Jamid and M. N. Akram, "Analysis of deep waveguide gratings: an efficient cascading and doubling algorithm in the method of lines framework", IEEE J. of Lightwave Technology, July 2002.
J3. H. A. Jamid and M. N. Akram,"Analysis of anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguide gratings using the method of lines", Applied Optics, June 2003.
J4. M. N. Akram, "Design of a multiple field-of-view optical system for 3-5 um infra-red focal plane arrays", Optical Engineering, Vol 42, No. 6. June 2003.
J5. M. N. Akram, "A design study of dual field-of-view imaging systems for 3-5 um waveband utilizing focal-plane-arrays" Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, May 2003.
J6. M. N. Akram and M. Hammad Asghar, "Step-zoom dual field-of-view IR telescope", Applied Optics, May 2003.
J7. M. N. Akram, Richard Schatz and Olle Kjebon, "Influence of electrical parasitics and drive impedance on the laser modulation response", IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, January 2004.
J8. M. N. Akram, Christofer Silfvenius, Olle Kjebon, Richard Schatz, "Design optimization of InGaAsP-InGaAlAs 1.55 um strain compensated MQW lasers for direct modulation applications", "Semiconductor Science and Technology", May 2004.
J9. M. N. Akram, "Lateral current injection (LCI) multiple quantum well 1.55 um laser with improved gain uniformity across the active region", "Optical and Quantum Electronics", Vol. 36, June 2004.
J10. Ivar Tångring, S. M. Wang, Q. F. Gu, Y. Q. Wei, M. Sadeghi, A. Larsson, Q. X. Zhao, M. N. Akram and J. Berggren, "Strong 1.3-1.6 um light emission from metamorphic InGaAs quantum wells on GaAs", Applied Physics Letters, April 2005.
J11. M. N. Akram, Richard Schatz, Saulius Marcinkevicuius, Olle Kjebon and Jesper Berggren, "The effect of barrier composition on the vertical carrier transport and lasing properties of 1.55 um multiple quantum well structures", IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 2006, Vol 42, pp 713-724.
J12. M. N. Akram, O. Kjebon, M. Chacinski, R. Schatz, J. Berggren, F. Olsson, S. Lourdudoss and A. Berrier, "Experimental Characterization of High-Speed 1.55 um Buried Hetero-Structure InGaAsP/InGaAlAs Quantum-Well Lasers", Journal of Optical Society of America B, Feb 2009.
J13. M. N. Akram, Vladimir Kartashov, Z. Tong, "Laser speckle reduction in line scan projector using binary phase codes", Optics Letters, 35(3), Feb 2010.
J14. M. N. Akram, "Simulation and control of narcissus phenomenon using non-sequential ray tracing, staring camera in 3-5um waveband", Applied Optics, Feb 2010.
J15. M. N. Akram, "Simulation and control of narcissus phenomenon using non-sequential ray tracing, line-scan camera in 7-12um waveband", Applied Optics, March 2010.
J16. G. Ouyang, K. Wang, L. Henriksen, M. N. Akram, X. Chen, "A novel tunable grating fabricated with viscoelastic polymer (PDMS) and conductive polymer (PEDOT)", Sensors and Actuators A, Physical, 158(2), Feb 2010.
J17. M. N. Akram, Zhaomin Tong, Guangmin Ouyang, Xuyuan Chen and Vladimir Kartashov, “Laser speckle reduction due to spatial and angular diversity introduced by fast scanning micro-mirror”, Applied Optics, Vol. 49, issue 17, pp 3297-3304, 2010.
J18. G. Ouyang, Z. Tong, M. N. Akram, K. Wang, V. Kartashov and X. Chen, ”Speckle reduction using a motionless diffractive optical element”, Optics Letters, 35(17), 2010.
J19. Vladimir Kartashov, M. N. Akram, “Speckle suppression in projection displays by using a motionless changing diffuser”, Journal of Optical Society of America A, 27(12), 2010.
J20. Zhaomin Tong, M. N. Akram, X. Y. Chen, “Speckle reduction using orthogonal arrays and its application is laser projectors”, Applied Optics, 49(33), 2010.
J21. G. Ouyang, K. Wang, M. N. Akram, L. Henriksen, X. Y. Chen, Optimization of PDMS network for a fast response and sensitive actuation material applied in a MEMS spatial light modulator, Applied Physics A-Materials Science & Processing, 103(2), May 2011
J22. Z. Tong, X. Chen, M. N Akram, A. Aksnes, “Compound speckle characterization method and reduction by optical design”, IEEE Journal of Display Technology, 8(3), March 2012
J23. S. V. Egge, M. N. Akram, V. Kartashov, K. Welde, Ulf Osterberg, A. Aksnes, “Sinusoidal rotation grating for speckle reduction in laser projectors”, Optical Engineering, April 2012.
J24. W. Gao, Z. Tong, V. Kartashov, M. N. Akram, X, Chen, ”Replacing two dimensional binary Hadamard phase matrix by a pair of one dimensional dynamic phase matrices for laser speckle reduction”, IEEE Journal of Display Technology, 8(5), 2012.
J25. X. Yu, Y. Xiang, J. Berggren, T. Zabel, M. Hammar, N. Akram, W. Shi and L. Chrostowski, “Room-temperature operation of transistor vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser”, Electronics Letter, Vol. 49, No. 3, Jan 2013
J26. Y. Xiang, X. Yu, J. Berggren1, T. Zabel1, M. Hammar, M. N. Akram, “Minority current distribution in InGaAs/GaAs transistor-vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser” Applied Physics Letter 102 (19)
J27. G Ouyang, M.N. Akram, K Wang, Z Tong, XY Chen, “Laser speckle reduction based on angular diversity induced by Piezoelectric Benders”, Journal of European Optical Society, Vol. 8 , 2013
J28. T-K Tran, S Subramaniam, Sukhdeep Kaur, Stanislaw Kalicinski, Magdalena Ekwinska, Einar Halvorsen, Muhammad Nadeem Akram, “Design, Modeling, and Characterization of a Microelectromechanical Diffuser Device for Laser Speckle Reduction”, IEEE Journal of MEMS, 23(1), 2014
J29. A.V. Pravdivtsev, M. N. Akram, “Simulation and assessment of stray light effects in infrared cameras using non-sequential ray tracing”, Journal of Infrared Physics and Technology, Vol. 60, Sept 2013
J30. M. N. Akram, Y Xiang, X Yu, T Zabel, M. Hammar, “Influence of base region thickness on the performance of Pnp transistor VCSEL”, Optics Express, 22(22) 2014
J31. T K Tran, X Chen, O Svensen, M. N. Akram, “Speckle reduction in laser projection using a dynamic deformable mirror”, Optics Express, 22(9), 2014
J32. Y Xiang, C Reuterskiöld-Hedlund, X Yu, T Zabel, M Hammar, M. N. Akram, Performance optimization of GaAs based vertical cavity surface emitting transistor lasers, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 27(7), 2015
J33. Y. Xiang, C. R. Hedelund, X. Yu, C. Yang, T. Zabel, M. Hammar, M. N. Akram, AlGaAs/GaAs/InGaAs pnp-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting transistor-lasers, Optics Express, 23(12), 2015
J34. M. N. Akram and X. Chen, Speckle reduction methods in laser based picture projectors, Optical Reviews, 2016
J35. L R Billa, M N Akram, X Chen, “H-Plane and E-Plane Loaded Rectangular Slow-Wave Structure for Terahertz TWT Amplifier”, IEEE transactions on Electron Devices, 63(4), 2016
J36. K T Tran, X Chen, M N Akram, “Speckle reduction in laser projection displays through angle and wavelength diversity”, Applied Optics, 55(6), 2016
J37. X Chi, L R Billa, Y B Gong, M N Akram, X Chen, “High Efficiency and High Power Staggered Double Vane TWT Amplifier Enhanced by Velocity-Taper Design”, Progress in Electromagnetics Research C 66, 2016
J38. M A Farghaly, M N Akram, E Halvorse, “Modeling framework for piezoelectrically actuated MEMS tunable lenses”, Optics Express 24(25), 2016
J39. Asmat Nawaz, Ali Koray Erdinc, Burak Gultekin, Muhammad Tayyib, Ceylan Zafer, Kaiying Wang, M Nadeem Akram, “Morphology study of inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells in sequential deposition”, International Journal of Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering, World academy of science, 10(7), 2016
J40. Asmat Nawaz, Per Øhlckers, Steinar Saelid, Morten Jacobsen, M N Akram, “Non-invasive continuous blood glucose measurements techniques, Bioinformatics and diabetes 1(3), 2016.
J41. Eivind Bardalen, Per Øhlckers, M. N. Akram, “Packaging and interconnection techniques for cryogenic superconducting optoelectronic devices”, accepted in Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic packaging, 2016
Selected list of conference publications:
C1. Akram, MN; Kartashov, V; Wang, K; Ouyang, G; Chen, X; ,Laser speckle reduction using a dynamic polymer-based diffraction grating spatial phase modulator,International Symposium on Photoelectronic Detection and Imaging 2009,73822H-73822H-9,2009,International Society for Optics and Photonics
C2. Ouyang, G; Wang, K; Akram, MN; Chen, X; ,Fabrication and characterization of polymer based spatial light modulators,Proceedings of SPIE,7426,,742604, 2009
C3. Akram, MN; Kjebon, O; Chacinski, M; Schatz, R; Berggren, J; Olsson, F; Lourdudoss, S; Berrier, A; ,High-Speed Performance of 1.55 μm Buried Hetero-Structure Lasers with 20 InGaAsP/InGaAlAs Quantum-Wells,"Optical Communications, 2006. ECOC 2006. European Conference on",1-2,2006,IEEE
C4. Tong, ZM; Ouyang, GM; Gao, WH; Akram, MN; Kartashov, V; Wang, KY; Chen, XY; ,Simulation of laser speckle reduction by using an array of diffraction gratings,Proceedings of SPIE,7387,73871S,2010
C5. Gao, Wenhong; Kartashov, Vladimir; Ouyang, Guangmin; Tong, Zhaomin; Akram, Muhammad Nadeem; Chen, Xuyuan; ,The matrices used to reduce speckle in laser projector system,Speckle 2010,73871R-73871R-7,2010,International Society for Optics and Photonics
C6. Wang, Kaiying; Ouyang, Guangming; Henriksen, Lars; Akram, Muhammad N; Chen, Xuyuan; ,Surface and electromechanical properties of polydimethylsiloxane films prepared by a modified molding technique,Proceedings of SPIE,7381,,73810C, 2009
C7. Ouyang, G; Tong, Z; Gao, W; Wang, K; Akram, MN; Kartashov, V; Chen, XY; ,Polymer-based multiple diffraction modulator for speckle reduction,Proc. SPIE,7387,73871F,2010
C8. Schatz, R; Kjebon, O; Akram, MN; ,Design and evaluation of high speed DBR lasers for analog and digital transmission,"Laser and Fiber-Optical Networks Modeling, 2003. Proceedings of LFNM 2003. 5th International Workshop on",32-37,2003,IEEE
C9. Akram, MN; Schatz, R; Marcinkevicius, S; Kjebon, O; Berggren, J; ,"Tu4. 5.3 Experimental Evaluation of Carrier Transport, Gain, T~ 0 and Chirp of 1.55 mum MQW Structures with Different Barrier Compositions",IEE CONFERENCE PUBLICATION,502,2,297,2005,London
C10. Akram, M Nadeem; Ouyang, Guangmin; Gao, Wenhong; Tong, Zhaomin; Chen, Xuyuan Y; ,Speckle reduction in line-scan laser projectors using binary phase codes: theory and experiments,Speckle 2010,,,73871P-73871P-7,2010,International Society for Optics and Photonics
C11. Akram, M Nadeem; ,Effect of projection lens numerical aperture and aberrations on speckle reduction in line-scan laser projectors,Speckle 2010,73871O-73871O-10,2010,International Society for Optics and Photonics
C12. Tong, Zhaomin; Akram, Muhammad Nadeem; Ouyang, Guangmin; Chen, Xuyuan; Kartashov, Vladimir; ,P‐171: Laser Speckle Reduction Using MEMS Scanning Mirror,SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers,41,1,1909-1912,2010,Blackwell Publishing Ltd
C13. Ouyang, GM; Tong, ZM; Akram, MN; Kartashov, V; Wang, KY; Chen, XY; ,Speckle reduction in laser displays using a MEMS tandem modulator,"Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (TRANSDUCERS), 2011 16th International",538-541,2011,IEEE
C14. Thi, Kim Trinh Tran; Tong, Zhaomin; Akram, Muhammad N; ,Speckle reduction characterization of high power broad-area edge-emitting diodes lasers,SPECKLE 2012: V International Conference on Speckle Metrology,84131N-84131N-6,2012,International Society for Optics and Photonics
C15. Tong, Zhaomin; Nadeem, Akram M; Chen, Xuyuan; ,Dynamic interference fringes generated by optical interferometer for laser speckle reduction,SPECKLE 2012: V International Conference on Speckle Metrology,84131M-84131M-5,2012,International Society for Optics and Photonics
C16. Schatz, R; Kjebon, O; Akram, MN; ,ANALOG AND DIGITAL TRANSMISSION,Proceedings of LFNM, 32,Institution of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
C17. Hammar, Mattias; Xiang, Yu; Yu, Xingang; Berggren, Jesper; Zabel, Thomas; Akram, Muhammad Nadeem; ,Lasers & Sources Toward ultra-high-bandwidth vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers
C18. Tran, Thi-Kim-Trinh; Chen, Xuyan; Svensen, Øyvind; Akram, Muhammad N; ,Demonstration of Speckle Reduction in a Laser Projector by Micro-electro-mechanical Diffuser Device,Frontiers in Optics,FM4F. 5,2013,Optical Society of America
C19. Xiang, Yu; Yu, Xingang; Berggren, Jesper; Zabel, Thomas; Hammar, Mattias; Akram, Muhammad Nadeem; ,Current Distribution in InGaAs/GaAs Transistor Vertical-cavity Surface Emitting Lasers,Session 4A7 Integrated Optical Passive and Active Components for Communication and Sensing Applications,1407
C20. Hammar, Mattias; Xiang, Yu; Yu, Xingang; Berggren, Jesper; Zabel, Thomas; Akram, Muhammad Nadeem; ,Room-temperature operation of 980-nm transistor-vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,"2013 IEEE 6th International Conference on Advanced Infocomm Technology, ICAIT 2013
C21. Akram, Muhammad N; ,Design of a dual field-of-view imaging system for infrared focal plane arrays,International Symposium on Optical Science and Technology,10-20,2002,International Society for Optics and Photonics
C22. Akram, M Nadeem; Schatz, Richard; Nejim, A; ,Transient Simulations of Edge Emitting Fabry-Perot InP/InGaAsP Laser Diode Using Silvaco TCAD Tools,Simulation Standard,14,8,1-2,2004
C23. Akram, Muhammad N; Asghar, Muhammad H; ,Design and modeling of a dual-magnification Galilean IR telescope and associated focusing optics,International Optical Design Conference 2002,486-493,2002,International Society for Optics and Photonics
C24. Egge, Sigbjørn Vindenes; Akram, M Nadeem; Kartashov, Vladimir; Welde, Kristine; Tong, Zhaomin; Osterberg, Ulf; Aksnes, Astrid; ,Reducing unwanted intensity fluctuations in laser-projected images
C25. Khajeh, Belal K; Akram, M Nadeem; ,Spatial coherence measurement of high power broad area edge emitting laser,International Symposium on Optoelectronic Technology and Application 2014,,,92970R-92970R-9,2014,International Society for Optics and Photonics
C26. Oyvind Svensen, Kim Trinh Tran Thi, Xuyuan Chen, and Muhammad Nadeen Akram; ,Design Aspects for High Lumen DLP Laser/phosphor Projector,"International Optical Design Conference, Kohala Coast, Hawaii United States",,,paper ITu4C.1,2014,"Classical Optics 2014, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014)"
C27. Wang, Kaiying; Ouyang, Guangming; Henriksen, Lars; Akram, Muhammad Nadeem; Chen, Xuyuan; ,Surface and electromechanical properties of polydimethylsiloxane films prepared by modified molding,Proc. of SPIE Vol,7381,,73810C-1
P1- Zhaomin Tong, Wenhong Gao, Xuyuan Chen, M. N. Akram, Ouyang Guangmin, Kaiying Wang, Speckle reduction apparatus and speckle reduction apparatus mask. USA Application Number: 13038622, 2011
P2- Kartashov, V. and M. N. Akram, A method, device and system for reducing speckle contrast, EP Patent 2,322,957, 2011
P3- X. Chen, Z. Tong and M. N. Akram, A method of reducing speckles and a light source used in said method, under process