Caroline Cruaud

Department of Education and Quality in Learning
Unit for Digitalisation and Education
Campus Drammen (4304)
Associate Professor


  • Contact person for employees of HIU faculty
  • Development of staff's pedagogical and digital competence
  • Educational use of ICT and playful learning


With a background in foreign language learning and teaching, Caroline Cruaud is researching playful learning and the use of digital tools in education. In her Ph.D. thesis on the topic of gamification of education, she developed a framework based on play theories and the concept of frame, to design and analyse play situations in a classroom context. Her research interests also cover game-based learning, design-based research, and the process of designing tools for learning.
At USN eDU she is acting as contact person for the Faculty of Humanities, Sports, and Educational Science (HIU) in regards to development of pedagogical and digital competence.

  • PhD in Education from University of Oslo, Norway
  • PhD Thesis: "The Playful Frame: Design and use of a gamified application for foreign language learning"
  • Master in French as a foreign language (education and didactics) from Université de Nantes, France
  • Experience with ICT for learning
  • Experience with playful learning
  • Reviewer for Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research (SJER) and Studia Paedagogica.



  • Cruaud, C. (2018). Designing with Teachers: Contrasting Teachers’ Experiences of the Implementation of a Gamified Application for Foreign Language Learners. In Arnseth, Hanghøj, Henriksen, Misfeldt, Ramberg, & Selander (Eds.), Games and Education: Designs in and for Learning.  Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill | Sense.
  • Cruaud, C. (2018). The Playful Frame: Design and use of a gamified application for foreign language learning (Dissertation). University of Oslo, Oslo.
  • Cruaud, C. (2018). Learner Autonomy and Playful Learning: Students’ Experience of a Gamified Application for French as a Foreign Language. ALSIC21(1).
  • Cruaud, C. (2016). The playful frame: gamification in a French-as-a-foreign-language class. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching


Selected presentations

  • Cruaud, C. (2019). Playful Learning: research and practice on bringing play in the classroom. Keynote at ITS Volda 2019, 11/04/2019, Volda, Norway.
  • Cruaud, C. (2019). Designing for playful learning: Operationalising playfulness in the design of an app for foreign language learning. Presented at the NERA 2019, 07/03/2019, Uppsala, Sweden.
  • Cruaud, C. (2019). Spillbasert læring. Presented at the eDU webinar series, 14/02/2019, Drammen, Norway.
  • Cruaud, C. (2019). The playful frame – gamification in the foreign language class. Presented at the MTEC seminars on game studies, 06/02/2019, University of Skövde, Sweden.
  • Cruaud, C. (2017). Le jeu comme approche pédagogique. Presented at Fransklærerforeningen seminar, 25/11/2017, Ålesund.
  • Cruaud, C. (2017). Spillorientert læring og elevautonomi. Presented at NIFU, 19/10/2017, Oslo.
  • Cruaud, C. (2017). Gamifying the questioning in foreign language education. Presented at ’Game-based Learning: Gamifying the questioning’, organised by Oslo Edtech Cluster, 12/10/2017, Sentralen, Oslo.
  • Cruaud, C. (2016). The playful frame: Gamification of foreign language learning in a Norwegian high school. Presented at the Playful Learning Center, 03/12/2016,  University of Helsinki, Helsinki.
  • Cruaud, C. (2015). Gamifying French. Presented at the Faglig-pedagogisk dag, 29/10/2015, University of Oslo, Oslo.
  • Cruaud, C. (2015). A gamified application for French as a foreign language: development and research. Presented at the DL2LLab (Digital Language Learning Lab), 06/02/2015, University of Victoria, Canada.
  • Cruaud, C. (2015). Gamification as a design process. Presented at the EiT-Landsbyen Lev og Lær, 12/01/2015, NTNU, Trondheim.