Kjell Ivar Øvergård


Fakultet for teknologi, naturvitenskap og maritime fag
Institutt for maritime operasjoner
Campus Vestfold (D3-56)
Prof. Øvergård is currently on administrative leave and only works at USN one day per week (20% position). For the remainder of the week he works as Chief Scientific Officer (CSO) in Evidence Based HR (EBHR) - a Human Resources firm located in Oslo.



Previous employment.
Since may 2011 he has worked as Professor of Maritime Human Factors at the Department of Maritime Operations at USN. He has been adjunct associate professor at the Department of Psychology, University of Oslo (2012-2015) and adjunct Professor at Western Norway University of Applied Sciences (2017-2018). He has also worked at AIBN (Accident Investigation Board of Norway) and NSB (Norwegian State Railways). 

Awards and Honors
In 2012 he was the recipient of a gift professoriate from Kongsberg Maritime (4 MNOK over 5 years). He was head of research for maritime research at the Faculty of Technology and Maritime Sciences between from January 2012-December 2016. He has been head and vice-head of the program board for the national phd-program in Nautical Operations (Joint Degree) between September 2016 and April 2018. 

Research Interests
I have been involved in cross-disciplinary research for more than 15 years. One of my main research interests is how humans can maintain control in safety-critical work operations such as transport or critical care medicine. This have also led to an interest in the dynamics of human work behavior as well as the time-dependency between work performance and causal or contributing factors. Due to this I also have a keen interest in statistical modeling and prediction of human behavior. Currently I use my competence to model and predict burnout and absense from work from a Human Resources perspective. 


  • Professor-competent in Work and Organisational Psychology: Maritime Human Factors (since May 2011) and in Work Life Research (since April 2018).
  • Sound understanding of Applied Statistics with particular focus on General Linear Modelling, robust non-parametric statistics and bootstrapping procedures. 
  • Experienced in Cross-disciplinary research



  • PhD in Psychology (Cognitive Systems Engineering) from NTNU, Norway 2008
  • Cand.Polit in Psychology (Ergonomics and Human Factors) from NTNU, Norway 2004
  • Cand.mag from Akershus College, Norway, 2001

Research Interest

  • Simulator Training and Assessment
  • Maritime Human Factors and Cognitive Systems Engineering
  • Leadership and Management
  • Applied Statistics and Statistical Modelling
  • Time-dependent analysis of work
  • User-Centred Design and User Testing




A.        Edited Books 

1.         Øvergård, K. I. (Ed.) (2018). Robotic Sailing 2017, Proceedings of the 10thInternational Robotic Sailing Conference. Cham, Switzerland, Springer International Publishing. Print ISBN 978-3-319-72738-7  DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-72739-4


B.        Peer-Reviewed Book Chapters

1.         Øvergård, K. I. (2008). A Video-Based Phenomenological Method for Evaluation of Driving Experience in Staged or Simulated Environments. In T. Hoff & C. A. Bjørkli (Eds.), Embodied Minds – Technical Environments(pp. 259-277). Trondheim, Norway: Tapir Academic Press.

2.         Hoff, T. & Øvergård, K. I.(2008). Explicating the Ecological Interaction Properties. In T. Hoff & C. A. Bjørkli (Eds.), Embodied Minds – Technical Environments(pp. 147-160). Trondheim, Norway: Tapir Academic Press.

3.         Øvergård, K. I., Bjørkli, C. A. & Hoff, T. (2008). The Bodily Basis of Control in Technically Aided Movement. In S. Bergmann, T. Hoff and T. Sager (Eds.), Spaces of Mobility: The Planning, Ethics, Engineering and Religion of Human Motion, (pp. 101-123). London, UK: Equinox Publishing. 

4.         Sorensen, L. J., Øvergård, K. I.,& Martinsen, T. J. (2014). Understanding Human Decision Making during Critical Incidents in Dynamic Positioning. In S. Sharples, & S. Shorrock (Eds.). Contemporary Ergonomics and Human Factors 2014, (pp. 359-366). London, UK: Taylor & Francis 

5.         Øvergård, K. I., Sorensen, L. J., Martinsen, T. J., & Nazir, S. (2014). Characteristics of Dynamic Positioning Operators’ Situation Awareness and Decision Making during Critical Incidents in Maritime Operations. In N. Stanton, S. Landry, G. Di Bucchianico & A. Vallicelli (eds). Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation, Part I(pp. 240-255). Danvers, MA.: AHFE Conference, 

6.         Delgado, O., Øvergård, K. I.,Henden, V. (2015). Women are better leaders than they think: gender differences in the self-assessment of leadership skills in the maritime industry. In M. Kitada, E. Williams, L. L. Froholdt (eds). Maritime Women, Global Leadership (pp. 201-216). Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag.

7.         Mrugalska, B., Nazir, S., Tytyk, E. & Øvergård, K. I.(2015).Process safety control for occupational accident prevention. In P. M. Arezes, J. S. Baptista, M. P. Barroso, P. Carneio, P. Cordeiro, N. Costa, R. B. Melo, A. S. Miguel, G. Perestrelo (Eds). Occupational Safety and Hygiene III(pp. 365-369). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 

8.         Nazir, S., Gallace, A., Manca, D., & Øvergård, K. I.(2016). Immersive Virtual Environment or conventional training? Assessing the effectiveness of different training methods on the performance of industrial operators in an accident scenario. In Azedes P.M.F.M and Carvalho P.M.R. (eds.). Ergonomics and Human Factors in Safety Management, (pp. 213-233). CRC Press. 

9.         Fjærli, B. A. B., Nazir, S., & Øvergård, K. I. (2017). Gender Bias in the Perception of Outstanding Leadership in the Maritime Industry. In Kantola, J. I., Barath, T., Nazir, S., Andre, T. (eds). Advances in Human Factors, Business Management, Training and Education (pp. 359-369). Springer International Publishing (ISBN: 978-3-319-42069-1).

10.       Øvergård, K. I., Hontvedt, M., Sorensen, L. J., Smit, P. N. & Nazir, S. (2017). Maritime Bridge Crew Training. In M. S. Young and M. G. Lenné (eds.) Simulators for transportation human factors: research and practice(pp. 281-309). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 

11.       Bouhmala, N. & Øvergård, K. I.(2017). Combining genetic algorithm with variable neighbourhood search for MAX-SAT. InI. Zelinka, P. Vasant, V. Hoang & T. T. Dao (eds.). Studies in Computational Intelligence741, Innovative Computing, Opitimzation and Its Applications, (pp. 73-92). Springer International ISBN 978-3-319-66984-7

12.       Øvergård, K. I., Tannum, M. S., Haavardstun, P. & Syversen, J. K. B. (2018). Chase, no Straighter: COLREG compliant Anti-Collision Manoeuvers for Crossing Situations. In K. I. Øvergård (Ed.). Robotic Sailing 2017,Proceedings of the 10thInternational Robotic Sailing Conference(pp. 81-91). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.


B2:      Book prefaces (non-peer reviewed)

1.         Øvergård, K.I. & Tannum, M. S. (2018). Preface. In K. I. Øvergård (Ed.). Robotic Sailing 2017, (pp. vvi). CRC Press. 


C.        Full Length, Fully-Refereed Journal Papers

1.         Bjelland, H. V., Hoff, T., Bjørkli, C. A. & Øvergård, K. I.(2007). A Case Study of a Touch Based Interface for In-Car Audio Systems. Design Journal, 10(1), 24-34.

2.         Øvergård, K. I.,Fostervold, K. I., Bjelland, H. V., & Hoff, T. (2007). Knobology in use: an experimental evaluation of ergonomics recommendations. Ergonomics, 50(5), 694-705.

3.         Bjørkli, C. A., Øvergård, K. I., Røed, B. K., & Hoff, T. (2007). Control Situations in High-Speed Craft Operation. Cognition, Technology, and Work, 9, 67-80.

4.         Øvergård, K. I.,Bjørkli, C. A., Røed, B. K., & Hoff, T. (2010). Control strategies used by experienced marine navigators: observation of verbal conversations during navigation training. Cognition, Technology & Work12(3), 163-179.

5.         Bjørkli, C. A., Øvergård, K. I., Bjørshol, C., Myklebust, H. & Hoff, T. (2012). Effects of socio-emotional stressors on ventilation rate and subjective workload during simulated CPR by lay rescuers. Applied Ergonomics, 43(4), 799-802.

6.         Bouhmala, N., Hjelmervik, K. & Øvergård, K. I.(2012). Single vs. hierarchal population—based memetic algorithms for SAT-encoded industrial problems: a statistical comparison. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence & Applications, 3(6), 57-73.

7.         Nazir, S., Sorensen, L. J., Øvergård, K. I., & Manca, D. (2014). How can distributed situation awareness influence process safety? Chemical Engineering Transactions, 36, 409-414.

8.         Øvergård, K.I. & Smit, P. N. (2014). The effects of Sea experience and computer confidence on Ecdis training. Journal of Maritime Research11(2), 25-31. 

9.         Nazir, S., Sorensen, L. J., Øvergård, K. I. & Manca, D. (2015). Impact of training methods on distributed situation awareness of industrial operators. Safety Science,73, 136-145.

10.       Bouhmala, N., Hjelmervik, K. & Øvergård, K. I.(2015). A Generalized Variable Neighborhood Search for Combinatorial Optimization Problems. Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics47, 45-52.

11.       Fjærli, B. A. B., Øvergård, K. I.& Westerberg, T. V. (2015). The Maritime Managers of the Future - what do they think is good leadership? TransNav, International Journal of Maritime Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, 9(1), 107-111.

12.       Øvergård, K. I., Sorensen, L. J., Nazir, S., & Martinsen, T. (2015). Critical Incidents during dynamic positioning: Operator´s Situation Awareness and Decision-Making in Maritime Operations. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 16(4), 366-387.

13.       Nazir, S., Carvalho, P. V. R., Gomez, J-O., Borges, R. S., Vidal, M. C. R., Øvergård, K. I.,& Manca, D. (2015). Distributed Situation Awareness in Nuclear, Process and Maritime Domains. Chemical Engineering Transactions43, 1993- 1998.

14.       Abbas, T., Nazir, S., Øvergård, K. I.,Manca, D., Abdul Mutalib, M. I., and Khan, M. (2015). Hazards of Mercury – Safety Perspectives and Measures. Chemical Engineering Transactions43, 2143-2148. DOI: 10.3303/CET1543358

15.       Øvergård, K. I., Nielsen, A. R., Nazir, S. & Sorensen, L. J. (2015). Assessing Navigational Teamwork through the Situational Correctness and Relevance of Communication. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 2589-2596.

16.       Nazir, S., Øvergård, K. I.,Yang, Z. L. (2015). Towards effective training for process and maritime industries. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 1519-1526.

17.       Kim, T. E., Nazir, S., Øvergård, K. I. (2016). A STAMP-based causal analysis of the Korean Sewol Ferry Accident. Safety Science83, 93-110. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssci.2015.11.014

18.       Mrugalska, B., Nazir, S., Tytyk, E. & Øvergård, K. I.(2016).Human Error and Response to Alarms in Process Industry. DYNA,83(197), 81-86.

19.       Manca, D., Nazir, S., Komulainen, L & Øvergård, K. I.(2016). How extreme environments can impact the training of industrial operators. Chemical Engineering Transactions53, 193-198.

20.       Øvergård, K. I., Nazir, S., & Solberg, A. S. (2017). Towards Automated Performance Assessment of Maritime Navigation and Manoeuvring. TransNav, International Journal of Maritime Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, 11(2), 229-234. DOI: 10.12716/1001.11.02.03

21.       Imset, M. & Øvergård, K. I.(2017). Shared mental models of Challenging Maritime Situations: Comparisons of ship and shore personnel in in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore. TransNav, International Journal of Maritime Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, 11(2), 243-248. DOI: 10.12716/1001.11.02.05

22.       Rønningen, J. V., & Øvergård, K. I. (2017). Shared pilot passage plan and navigational safety during pilotage. WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs,16, 439-454. DOI: 10.1007/s13437-017-0128-x

23.       Hagen, S., Øvergård, K. I., Fosse, E., Helgesen, M. & Torp, S. (2018). The use of HIAP to promote equity: the case of local Norwegian health promotion. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, x(x), 1-11. Available at: (http://www.ijhpm.com/article_3479_eae899ecc6556426bddd93d714bc772d.pdf

24.       Hoff, T., Gottenborg, S., Bjørkli C. A., Lone, J. A., & Øvergård, K. I. (Accepted). Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument – En studie av dimensjonaliteten i en norsk oversettelse. Scandinavian Journal of Organisational Psychology

25.       Hontvedt, M., & Øvergård, K. I. (Submitted). Simulations at Work - A framework for configuring simulator fidelity into training objectives.Computer-Supported Collaborative Work. 



D.        Short Journal Papers/Extended abstract

1.         Øvergård, K. I., Bjørkli, C. A., Bjørshol, C., Myklebust, H., & Hoff, T. (2008). Socio-Emotional Stressors Increases Manual Ventilation Frequency During Manual Resuscitation of a Manikin Model. Circulation, 118S, 1468. 

2.         Völker, S., Corsten, C., Hamdan, N. A., Øvergård, K. I.,& Borchers, J. (2014). An Interaction model for touch-aware tangibles on interactive surfaces. In M. Jones et al (Eds.) CHI ’14, Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1873-1878). ACM Press. ISBN 978-1-4503-2474-8



E:        Conference Presentations

 Invited Keynote/Plenary Addresses

1.         Øvergård, K. I.(2011). Identifikasjon av økt risiko i ‘de små hendelsene’: Statistikk og sannsynlighet (og potensielt noe om kutting av haler). [Identification of increased risk in "the small events": Statistics and Probability (and potentially something about cutting tails)] Presentation at ESRA Skinnegående sikkerhetsforum, ”Å lære eller la være”the 9th of April. ESRA Norge, Norsk forening for risiko og pålitelighetsanalyse: Oslo, Norge. 

2.         Øvergård, K. I.(2011). Workload, design, control and complexity. Presentation at KOG Teknologikonferanse, the 22ndof Sept. 2011 at Sundvollen Hotel: Buskerud, Norge

3.         Øvergård, K. I.(2012). Mennesker, Teknologi og Krevende Maritime Operasjoner. [Humans, Technology and Demanding Maritime Operations] Presentation at OFA forskningskonferanse, the 1st of February 2012 at Norwegian University for Life Sciences: Ås, Norge. http://oslofjordalliansen.no/neted/modules/archive/front/file.php?data=c43da0e63d667f519dac41b5cfe3b5f7

4.         Øvergård, K. I.(2013) FoU-basert produktutvikling: Tidlige design-stadier i maritim innovasjon. [Research-based Product development: Early Design Stages in Maritime Innovation] Presentation at 12K-konferansen, 6-7thof March at Rica Park Hotel, Sandefjord Norway. 

5.         Øvergård, K. I.(2013). Future trends and challenges. What about the human factor? Presentation at Nor-Shipping, the 4th of June at Norges Varemesse, Lillestrøm, Norway. 

6.         Øvergård, K. I.(2014). Human factors - regler og prosedyrer kontra sjømannskap: [Human Factors - Rules and procedures versus seamanship]. DP og forankring av offshore installasjoner, 12-13th of February 2014, Rica Nidelven Hotel, Trondheim, Norway. 

7.         Øvergård, K. I. (2014). A human factors perspective on human error and near-misses. Presentation for International Federation of Shipmaster’s Associations 40thAnnual General Assembly 5-6 of June, 2014. Sandefjord, Norway. 

8.         Øvergård, K. I. (2015). Human involvement in critical situations and near-misses in the maritime and offshore industries.Invited presentation at Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) Seminar Series - Seminar 5:  Human factors and best practice: Cross-fertilisation in research and industry. The 5thof August 2015, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.

9.         Øvergård, K. I. (2017). Automated Assessment of Navigation.Presentation at the Department of Maritime Studies and Transport, University of Ljubljana, 31 March 2017, Portoroz, Slovenia. 

10.       Øvergård, K. I.(2017). Automatisert vurdering av navigasjon.Presentation at Ocean Industry Competence Forum: Omstilling og nye muligheter, 4 May 2017. Handelshøyskolen BI: Oslo, Norway.


Conference Presentations with Proceedings (peer-reviewed)

1.        Øvergård, K. I.& Hoff, T. (2005). Control of Human-Technology Processes: The Bodily Basis for Control. In B. Veiersted, K. I. Fostervold, and K. S. Gould (eds.). Proceedings of the 37thAnnual Conference of the Nordic Ergonomic Society, Ergonomics as a tool in future development and value creation. (pp 175-179). Oslo, Norway: Nordic Ergonomics Society.

2.         Øvergård, K. I., Bjørkli, C. A., Hoff, T. & Dahlman, J. (2005). Comparison of Trajectory Variation and Speed for Real and Simulator-based High-Speed Navigation. In B. Veiersted, K. I. Fostervold, and K. S. Gould (eds.). Proceedings of the 37thAnnual Conference of the Nordic Ergonomic Society, Ergonomics as a tool in future development and value creation. (pp 275-279). Oslo, Norway: Nordic Ergonomics Society.

3.         Bouhmala, N., Hjelmervik, K. & Øvergård, K. I.(2012). Improving the asymptotic convergence of memetic algorithms: The SAT problem case study. Conference Proceedings ECTA2012: 4th International Conference on Evolutionary Computation Theory and application, (pp. 264-266)

4.         Völker, S., Nakajima, K., Thoresen, C. B., Itoh, Y., Øvergård, K. I.,Borchers, J. (2013). PUCs: Detecting Transparent, Passive Untouched Capacitive Widgets on Unmodified Multi-Touch Displays. In A. Quigley, G. Jacucci, M. S. Horn, M. A. Nacenta (eds), Proceedings of the 2013 ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces, ITS'13, co-located with UIST'13, October 6–9, 2013 (pp. 101-104), St. Andrews, UK. ACM 2013, ISBN 978-1-4503-2271-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2512349.2512791

5.         Bouhmala, N., Hjelmervik, K. & Øvergård, K. I.(2013) Hybrid of evolutionary algorithm and multilevel paradigm to solve the satisfiability problem. In D. Aboutajdine, A. Skalli, B, Benchekroun, & A. Artiba (eds.), Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Systems Management (IESM2013), (pp. 1-4)28-30 Oct. 2013, Agdal, Rabat, Marocco: IEEE

6.         Bouhmala, N., Hjelmervik, K. & Øvergård, K. I.(2013). Combining an evolutionary algorithm with the multilevel paradigm for the simulation of complex systems. In W. Rekdalsbakken, R. T. Bye & H. Zhang (Eds). Proceedings 27thEuropean Conference on Modeling and Simulation. Ålesund, Norway: IEEE

7.         Nakajima, Y., Ito, O., Voelker, S., Thoresen, C., Øvergård, K. I.,Borchers, J. (2014). PUCs: 静電容量方式マルチタッチパネルにおけるユーザの接触を必要としないウィジェト検出手法[PUCs: Detecting Transparent, Passive, Untouched, Capacitive Widgets on Unmodified Multi-touch displays. In Proceedings from IPSJ Interaction’14 (pp. 108-113). Tokyo, Japan: Information Processing Society of Japan.

8.         Øvergård, K. I.,& Smit, P. N. (2014). Effects of sea experience and computer confidence in ECDIS training. In F. X. Martinez de Osés & M. Castells i Sanabra (eds.). Maritime Transport IV: 6th International Conference on Maritime Transport (pp. 297-310). Barcelona, Spain: Politecnico di Catalunya

9.         Völker, S., Corsten, C., Hamdan, N. A., Øvergård, K. I.,& Borchers, J. (2014). An Interaction Model for Grasp-Aware Tangibles on Interactive Surfaces. In R. Dachselt, N. Graham, K. Hornbæk, M. Nacenta (eds.).ITS 14 Proceedings of the Ninths ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces (pp. 279-281). Dresden, Germany: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). DOI: 10.1145/2669485.2669494

10.       Abujaafar, K. M., Yang, Z. L., Wang, J., Nazir, S., & Øvergård, K. I.(2015). Modelling adequacy of organisations in human reliability analysis – a case of marine engineering operations. In L. Podofillini, B. Sudret, B, Stojadinovic & W. Kröder (eds.), Safety and Reliability of Complex Engineered Systems, (pp. 3157-3164). London, UK: CRC Press.

11.       Nazir, S. & Øvergård, K. I.,& Manca, D. (2015) The Impact of Trainer of Training Transferability. In K. I. Fostervold, S. Å. K. Johnsen, L. Rydstedt and R. G. Watten (Eds.) Creating Sustainable Work Environments, (pp. C2-5 – C2-9).Lillehammer, 1-4 of November, 2015, Lysaker, Norway: Norwegian society for ergonomics and human factors.

12.       Øvergård, K. I. (2015). Human Error: Causality and the Confusion of Normative and Descriptive Accounts of Human Performance. In K. I. Fostervold, S. Å. K. Johnsen, L. Rydstedt and R. G. Watten (Eds.) Creating Sustainable Work Environments, (pp. C5-6, C5-10).Lysaker, Norway: Norwegian society for ergonomics and human factors.

13.       Øvergård, K. I., Paulsen, M., & Nazir, S. (2015). Effect of Normative vs. Descriptive Concepts on the Evaluation of Accident Narratives. In K. I. Fostervold, S. Å. K. Johnsen, L. Rydstedt and R. G. Watten (Eds.) Creating Sustainable Work Environments, (pp. A3-6 – A3-10).Lysaker, Norway: Norwegian society for ergonomics and human factors.

14.       Nazir, S., Manca, D., Komulainen, T., & Øvergård, K. I. (2015). Training Simulator for Extreme Environments. In K. I. Fostervold, S. Å. K. Johnsen, L. Rydstedt and R. G. Watten (Eds.) Creating Sustainable Work Environments, (pp. C5-16 – C5-20), Lysaker, Norway: Norwegian society for ergonomics and human factors.

15.       Völker, S., Cherek, C., Thar, J., Karrer, T., Thoresen, C. B., Øvergård, K. I.,Borchers, J. (2015). PERCs: Persistently Trackable Tangibles on Capacitive Multi-Touch Displays. In C. Latulipe, B. Hartmann, and T. Grossman (Eds.). Proceedingsfrom the 28thACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST) (pp. 351-356). Association for Computing Machinery. DOI: 10.1145/2807442.2807466

16.       Völker, S., Øvergård, K. I.,Wacharamanotham, C., & Borchers, J. (2015). Knobology Revisited: A Comparison of User Performancebetween Tangible and Virtual Rotary Knobs. In N. Nunes, E. Constanza, P. Olivier & J. Schöning (eds.). Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces, (pp. 35-38). New York, NY: Association of Computing Machinery.

17.       Thoresen, C., Øvergård, K. I.,& Hancke, U. (2015). Detection of Ungrounded Objects on Mutual Capacitance Touch Screens. In K. Chun, C. Schober, S. Tadigadapa, and J. Lee (eds.). IEEE Sensors 2015 Proceedings, (pp. 1542-1545). IEEE

18.       Abujaafar, K. M., Qu, Z., Yang, Z., Wang, J., Nazir, S., & Øvergård, K. I. (2016). Use of evidential reasoning for eliciting Bayesian subjective probabilities in human reliability analysis. In 2016 11th System of Systems Engineering Conference (SoSE)(pp. 1-6). IEEE.

19.     Bouhmala, N. & Øvergård, K. I.(2017). Combining Genetic Algorithm with Variable Neighbourhood Search for MAX-SAT. COMPSE2016. First EAI International Conference on Computer Science and Engineering, November 11-12, 2016, Penang Malaysia. IEA Core Proceedings,  9 pageshttp://dx.doi.org/10.4108/eai.27-2-2017.152347

20.     Imset, M., Øvergård, K. I., Aamaas, P., Knutson, S., Tannum, M. S., & Haavardtun, P. (Accepted). Establishing a Living Lab for the development of autonomous ships. Research-in-Progress Submission (Draft) for ISPIM 2018, Stockholm